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  • Publication Date: 10-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Comparative Connections
  • Institution: Center for Strategic and International Studies
  • Abstract: July 9, 2008: New York Times carries a full-page advertisement, “Do you know?” claiming South Korean sovereignty over the Dokdo/Takeshima islets. July 10-12, 2008: A Heads of Delegation Meeting of the Six-Party Talks is held in Beijing. July 14, 2008: The Japanese government announces that new guidelines for middle school teachers will describe the Dokdo/Takeshima islets as an integral part of Japanese territory.
  • Topic: Security, Terrorism
  • Political Geography: Japan, New York, Korea
  • Author: Yu Bin
  • Publication Date: 10-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Comparative Connections
  • Institution: Center for Strategic and International Studies
  • Abstract: The third quarter of 2008 was quite eventful for Russia and China as well as their bilateral relationship. The 29th Summer Olympics in Beijing opened and concluded with extravaganza and a record 51 gold medals for China. Shortly before the opening ceremony on Aug. 8, Georgia's attacks against South Ossetia – a separatist region of Georgia – led to Russia's massive military response, a five-day war, and Russia's recognition of their independence. Thus, the August guns and games brought the two strategic partners back to the world stage. One consequence of the Georgian-Russian war is that China's “neutrality” is widely seen as a crisis in China's strategic partnership with Russia.
  • Topic: Security, Markets
  • Political Geography: Russia, China, Beijing, Georgia
  • Publication Date: 10-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Comparative Connections
  • Institution: Center for Strategic and International Studies
  • Abstract: July 9, 2008: President Hu Jintao and President Dmitry Medvedev meet in Toyako, Hokkaido, on the sidelines of the G8 summit. The two agree to promote bilateral strategic and cooperative partnership, and express their determination to give priority to the development of a long-term and steady partnership. July 17, 2008: One hundred Chinese children affected by a devastating earthquake in Sichuan Province arrive in the Kemerovo region to spend three weeks in a regional children recreation center. A total of 1,000 Chinese children from the quake area would go to Russian resorts during the third quarter.
  • Topic: Terrorism
  • Political Geography: Russia, China, Tajikistan
  • Publication Date: 10-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Comparative Connections
  • Institution: Center for Strategic and International Studies
  • Abstract: With the presidential elections in the U.S. scheduled for Nov. 4, the candidates' views of relations with Asia are of great interest to the foreign policy community in the U.S. and throughout Asia. In an effort to provide some insight into the policies of Sen. John McCain and Sen. Barack Obama, we have surveyed both campaigns' statements to answer a series of questions regarding their Asia policy stances as the basis of this quarter's Occasional Analysis. Overall priorities for East Asia Senator Obama America's future prosperity and security are closely tied to developments in Asia. Our relations with Asia's diverse countries and economies have been stable but stagnant these past few years. Our narrow focus on preventing the spread of weapons of mass destruction and prosecuting a war on terrorism have earned us some cooperation, but little admiration. The war in Iraq has lost us good will among both allies and adversaries and has distracted our attention and policy initiatives from Asia's issues. Our preoccupation with Iraq has given a strategic advantage to China in the region, with as yet uncertain consequences. Barack Obama believes that the U.S. needs to strengthen our alliances and partnerships and engage more broadly in the regional trend toward multilateralism in order to build confidence, maintain regional stability and security, restore our international prestige, and promote trade and good governance in this crucial region.
  • Topic: Security, Economics
  • Political Geography: United States, America, Asia
  • Author: Till Blume
  • Publication Date: 11-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Security Sector Management
  • Institution: Centre for Security Sector Management
  • Abstract: “[W]hile trying to achieve a coherent approach, we must be cautious not to let our focus on the mechanics of coherence overshadow the UN's objectives “. This article seeks to review the concepts of integrated missions, rule of law (RoL), and security sector reform (SSR) – as well as analyse the United Nations Missions in Liberia's (UNMIL) efforts at integrating both concepts in its implementation plans and procedures. Firstly, an overview of integration efforts will be given. Thereafter, the RoL coordination and implementation of holistic planning and thinking in UNMIL will be described. At the end of the article, the focus will turn to some of the key challenges and policy implications that come with integrating RoL and SSR.
  • Topic: Security
  • Political Geography: United Nations, Liberia
  • Author: Elijah Dickens Mushemeza
  • Publication Date: 11-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Security Sector Management
  • Institution: Centre for Security Sector Management
  • Abstract: This paper assesses attempts by Uganda to improve post-conflict policing in the greater northern region of the country. The article analyses the causes and impact of the most violent conflicts the country has experienced in recent decades. The paper then describes the current situation of relative stability as a result of peace negotiations and disarmament exercises in the Karamoja sub-region, and the requirements for post-conflict policing. It then argues that despite the few successes achieved by the police, in particular with regard to de-mining activities, there is an urgent need to reform the force if it is to cope successfully with the continued demands of the post-conflict environment. Reform of policing activities is required immediately to ensure the protection of the population's human rights, and to re–balance inequality in the provision of policing services provided to the public.
  • Topic: Human Rights, Reform
  • Political Geography: Uganda
  • Author: Michael D. Wiatrowski, Nathan W. Pino, Anita Pritchard
  • Publication Date: 11-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Security Sector Management
  • Institution: Centre for Security Sector Management
  • Abstract: In post-conflict situations, safety and security are major concerns. Increased levels of crime, violence and disorder associated with postconflict environments may exceed the ability of the police to maintain order, particularly if the police are expected to reform in-line with human rights, democratic values and citizen safety. If the police are given a paramilitary function which will enable them to fight militias and insurgents, this can easily destroy their legitimacy and create a police culture that does not promote democratic development. In addition, the military forces present in a post-conflict environment typically lack the skills to facilitate a transition from rule by force to stability and the rule of law. It may therefore be necessary to create a unique police force that can both provide security and also promote a transition to a more stable and accountable environment, thus allowing conventional police forces to focus on developing according to democratic values. This paper considers this unique force, its roles, and relationships with conventional police forces, military and peacekeeping forces, and the population in post-conflict situations.
  • Topic: Security, Human Rights
  • Author: Marianne Tracy, Dr. Ann M Fitz-Gerald
  • Publication Date: 07-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Security Sector Management
  • Institution: Centre for Security Sector Management
  • Abstract: This paper recognises the many difficulties facing SSR practitioners operating on the ground in terms of their capacity to make strategic decisions which inform wider SSR planning. It evaluates many models and methodologies based on key criteria which – according to the SSR literature – significantly impacts on decisions taken regarding SSR programmes. The authors recognise that the most effective decisionmaking in uncertain environments is often supported by strong leadership, intuition and expeditious – but measured – approaches. Whilst this paper does not advocate for a more academic approach to be taken to SSR decision-making it illustrates the conceptual and academic thinking supporting the framework of the adapted and more simplified model chosen. The practical value of the decision-making model is discussed in the final section of the paper which overviews a notional model using defence reform and police as two relatively straightforward SSR programme areas. Whilst this paper forms the basis of the model's development, the real value of the model can be realised in the initial strategic planning phases of an SSR programme. In addition, the model can be used in a number of further simplified and 'short cut, forms which offer practitioners a simple methodology for establishing initial SSR related decisions. In parallel to this initial publication of the model – and in addition to the national SSR programmes used to trial the initial ideas - the authors will be producing a series of case studies which illustrate more simple and practical approaches to using the model in a number of national and thematic examples.
  • Topic: Development, Reform
  • Political Geography: United Nations
  • Author: Erwin van Veen
  • Publication Date: 07-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Security Sector Management
  • Institution: Centre for Security Sector Management
  • Abstract: Immediate post-conflict environments are complex, fluid and risky. A plethora of short and longer term challenges jostle for priority. Basic human needs must be met, stability and the rule of law restored and trade must recommence. In addition, all of this must happen in a relatively short period if a peace agreement is to be used to best advantage (Ashdown, 2007, 67-95). At the same time, the groundwork must be laid for activities that will last for decades. Infrastructure must be rebuilt, institutions recreated, legislation put in place, capacity built and economic stability returned (for instance: Junne and Verkoren, 2005; Klingebiel, 2006). The assistance of the international community nearly always required to meet the substantial challenges of early recovery and subsequent longer-term development.
  • Topic: Development, Reform
  • Author: Christos Floros, Bruce Newsome
  • Publication Date: 07-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Security Sector Management
  • Institution: Centre for Security Sector Management
  • Abstract: Since 2001, governments have made more resources available for building counter-terrorist capacity abroad, but performance has not matched the rhetoric. Lessons from the defeat of the November 17th terrorist organization in Greece suggest that political or material commitments are necessary but insufficient conditions of international counter-terrorist capacity-building. More important, but less acknowledged, are the organizational conditions. Governments should encourage more cooperative, less self-reliant cultures in their agencies, develop multi-laterally beneficial objectives, and prohibit activities unauthorised by the host country. Some of the lessons, such as adherence to the same rules of law by all stakeholders, confirm norms in security sector reform. Others, such as increased security sector powers, run counter to those norms.
  • Topic: Security, Government, Terrorism
  • Political Geography: America, Greece
  • Author: Dr. Ann M Fitz-Gerald, Dr Sylvie Jackson
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Security Sector Management
  • Institution: Centre for Security Sector Management
  • Abstract: Broader and more comprehensive approaches to post-conflict interventions have been developed by both the security and development communities. Such comprehensive and 'joined-up' approaches have enjoyed huge gains at the policy and planning levels, particularly in wider security policy areas such as Security Sector Reform (SSR). Integrated planning cells, joint assessment teams and missions, joint doctrine and cross-Government steering committees all represent mechanisms which have facilitated the broader approach to security and development work and between two fields which – in the past – rarely interacted at both the strategic planning and operational levels.
  • Topic: Security, Development, Reform
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom
  • Author: Hilary Pearce
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Security Sector Management
  • Institution: Centre for Security Sector Management
  • Abstract: Police play a complex and interlinked role with the communities they serve and the occurrence of HIV/AIDS adds an extra layer of complexity to that relationship. There is a lack of solid data and empirical research about HIV/AIDS and the police, its impacts and the lessons which have so far been identified. The vast majority of conclusions which have been drawn are speculative and based on anecdotal evidence. Furthermore, out of all the uniformed forces, the police are the forgotten force with to-date much of the 'security sector' research derived solely from the activity of military forces. Where the literature refers to the police as part of uniformed actors, they are quickly forgotten in the substance of the research. Consequently much of the evidence and debate surrounding uniformed actors is based solely on facts and figures taken from the world's armies.
  • Political Geography: South America
  • Author: Mark Knight
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Security Sector Management
  • Institution: Centre for Security Sector Management
  • Abstract: The immediate post-conflict environment requires a number of interventions from national and international actors. The international community has developed several mechanisms and methodologies to assist stabilization strategies that support the development of the wider peace process, or the transition from armed conflict to a stable peace. One of the most immediate interventions has become generically defined as Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) programmes. This field continues to be defined and codified, for example, through the UN Integrated DDR Standards and the OECD-DAC's Implementation Framework for Security System Reform (IF-SSR). The current international models require continued discussion and development on strengthening the linkages between DDR and SSR activities. As part of this discussion and development process this paper argues that there remains a need to understand the DDR process in a more holistic manner with two specific areas requiring greater attention: First, the process of DDR should be viewed as a continuation of the political dialogue, and not purely as a programmatic undertaking; second, it is essential that the concept of demobilisation be expanded to encompass the transformation of the organization in question, as well as the requirements of individuals. This paper therefore argues that an armed insurgent organization requires specialized and focused assistance to evolve from an armed insurgent organization into an entity that possesses a future role within a peaceful environment. Neither of these points is reflected in current DDR models, programmes or practices. By adopting these concepts the linkages between DDR and SSR activities will be strengthened.
  • Topic: Security, Development, Reform
  • Political Geography: New Delhi
  • Author: Andrew Atta-Asamoah
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Security Sector Management
  • Institution: Centre for Security Sector Management
  • Abstract: Africa's recognition of the threat of terrorism to the continent has culminated in the galvanisation of national, regional and international efforts towards counter-terrorism. By addressing the safety of citizens, protection of territorial integrity and preservation of the primacy of states, these efforts converge with the classical demands of the national security of African states. However, certain practical fallouts from the implementation of these measures - such as human rights abuses - diverge from the overarching purpose of national security of states and undermine national cohesion and democratic principles. This article juxtaposes post-9/11 counter-terrorism efforts in Africa and the national security of African states arguing that more effective implementation strategies supporting counter-terrorism initiatives in Africa will not only help rid the continent of terrorist activities and associated threats but also help combat other criminal aspects of African society and security threats. However, if the drivers of Africa's counter-terrorism agenda do not steer initiatives clear of parochial politics and religion, the security of African states will be undermined by counter-terrorism.
  • Topic: Security, Terrorism
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Ömer Karaoğlu
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Değişim Yayınları
  • Abstract: Musa Akyiğitzade korumacı düşünceler taşıyan Kazanlı bir Türk'tür. En fazla bilinen kitabı İlm-i Servet veyahut İlm-i İktisat'ın ilk bölümünde, Antik Yunan ve Roma düşüncesinden kaynaklanmış olan Batı ekonomi düşüncesinin tarihsel evriminden İslam geleneğiyle karşılaştırılmıştır. Kitapta, ekonomik düşünce ve politikalarda 18. yüzyılda ortaya çıkan kırılmanın önemi belirtilmektedir. Akyiğitzade, List ve Paul Cauwes'den esinlenerek, devletin devamı ve huzuru için korumacı prensiplere başvurmanın önemini vurgulamaktadır. Akyiğitzade aynı zamanda ilk Türk milliyetçisi gruplardan biri olan Türk Derneği adlı grubun içinde yer almıştır. Milliyetçilik düşüncesinin bir takipçisi olarak modern düşünce adamıdır. Osmanlı'nın son döneminde modern ekonomi kavramlarının dikkate değer bir karakteridir. O bir milliyetçi ve aydınlanmanın sadık bir bağlısıdır.
  • Author: Sefer Şener, Cüneyt Kılıç
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Değişim Yayınları
  • Abstract: Bu çalışmada yabancı sermaye kavramı genel anlamıyla her türlü yabancı getiriyi kapsayacak şekilde ele alınmıştır. Tanım ve ayrıntılardan ziyade Türkiye'de yabancı sermayenin hangi aşamalardan geçtiği belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Eskiden olduğu gibi bugünde önemli bir yere sahip olan yabancı sermaye tarihsel bakış açısı ile değerlendirilmiştir. Amaç yabancı sermayenin bugün karşımıza çıkan bir olgu olmaktan öte her dönemde önem arz ettiğini ortaya koymaktır. Bu açıdan 1840'lı yıllardan günümüze uzanan bir süreç kapsanmıştır. Eldeki istatistikî rakamlar değişik kaynaklardan derlenerek bir sistematik oluşturulmaya çalışılmıştır. Ayrıca bu rakamlar dönemlere ait iktisat politikaları çerçevesinde yorumlanmıştır. Bu çalışma Türkiye'de yabancı sermayenin uzun bir geçmişe sahip olduğunu göstermektedir. Tüm dünyada olduğu gibi Türkiye'de de ilk zamanlar dışarıdan alınan borçlarla ülkeye gelen yabancı sermaye daha sonraki dönemlerde kabuk değiştirmiştir. Küreselleşmeyle de paralel olarak bugün gelinen süreçte dünyada sermaye hareketleri ülkeler üzerinde büyük etkiler yaratmaktadır. Bu açıdan çalışmada Türkiye'ye gelen yabancı sermayenin etkileri de ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır.
  • Author: Hamza Al
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Değişim Yayınları
  • Abstract: Türk siyasal hayatı krizlerle doludur. Belirli aralıklarla siyasal sistem krize girmekte ve krizden çıkış için çeşitli yöntemler uygulanmaktadır. Sürekli tekrarladığı dikkate alındığında, krizlerin iyi analiz edilmediği ortaya çıkmaktadır. İktidarlar, genellikle krizden kaçınma ve krizi aşma politikası uygulamaktadırlar. Bu politika, sistemin belirli bir süre yürümesine yardımcı olsa da, krizlerin tekrarlamasına engel olamamaktadır. Asıl yapılması gereken ise, krizin kalıcı olarak çözülmesidir. Krizin çözülmesi de krize yol açan aktörlerin iyi analiz edilmesiyle mümkündür. Çalışmada kriz yönetimine değinildikten sonra, Türk siyasal krizinde rol oynayan aktörler ve faktörler incelenmiştir. Bu çerçevede sorunların kaynağını insandan çok sistemde aramanın yararlı olacağı tezi işlenmiştir.
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Mustafa Kemal Şan
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Değişim Yayınları
  • Abstract: İkinci Dünya savaşından sonra dünya toplumlarının bulundukları eşitsiz düzlemden kurtulmaları adına bir dizi kalkınma kuramları üretildi. Bu kuramların en önemlisi modernleşme kuramıdır. Bu yaklaşıma göre toplumlar Batılı bir gelişme çizgisini takip etmedeki becerilerine göre gelişmiş, gelişmekte olan ve az gelişmiş olarak tasnif edilerek bu gelişme altına düşen toplumların top yekûn bir kalkınma hamlesi içine girmeleri gereğinden söz açılmaktaydı. Ancak bir süre sonra toplumların aynı gelişme çizgilerini izlemek zorunda olup olmadıklarından tutun da bu gelişmenin salt ekonomik etmenlerle olup olmayacağına ilişkin önemli itirazlar yükseldi. Bu süreçlerin sonunda yeni bir toplumsal kalkınma modeli olarak sosyal sermaye kavramının yükselişe geçtiğini görüyoruz. Sosyal sermeye toplumun güven çapının yüksekliği kriterine dayanan ve buna göre toplumların maddi ve manevi yönden kalkınmalarını sağlayan en temel unsurlardan birisi olarak kabul edilmektedir. Sosyal sermaye her şeyi olduğu halde hala istenilen düzeyde bir ilerlemeye ulaşmayan ulusların sahip olmadıkları şeye işaret ederken, gelişme ve kalkınma için öyle elle tutulur fazlaca elverişli bir yapıya sahip olmadıkları halde dünyanın en müreffeh ülkeleri arasına girmeyi başarmış kimi ulusların da kalkınma durumlarının ardında yatan motive edici unsurları anlamamıza izin vermektedir. Bu yazıda kalkınma modelleri içinde çoğu kez hesaba katılmayan ancak çok yakın zamanlarda toplusal gelişmişliğin bir unsuru olarak kabul edilmeye başlamış olan sosyal sermaye kavramı ve bu kavramın Türkiye açısından taşıdığı önem ele alınacaktır. Bu yazı çerçevesinde biz özellikle Türk toplumunun modernleşme süreci içine din ekseninde yaşanan tartışmaların sosyal sermaye kaynaklarını nasıl heba ettiğini tartışma konusu yapılmaya çalışacağız.
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Koray Gürpınar, Mehmet Barca
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Değişim Yayınları
  • Abstract: Bu çalışma, Türk mobilya sektörünün uluslararası pazarlardaki reka-bet gücünün kaynağına ilişkin sektörde yer alan işletme yöneticilerinin gö-rüşlerini ortaya çıkarmayı amaçlamaktadır. Bu amaçla, sektörel rekabet gücü iki aşamalı olarak araştırmaya konu edilmiştir: Önce ikincil verilerden hareket ile Türk mobilya sektörünün uluslararası pazarlarda göreceli rekabetçi konumu belirlenmiş, daha sonra da, anket aracılığı ile üretilen birincil veriler ışığında bu rekabet avantajı ve sektörün geleceğine ilişkin beklentileri konusunda sektörde yer alan işletme yöneticilerinin düşünceleri değerlendirilmiştir. Elde edilen veriler ışığında, mobilya sektörünün son yıllarda uluslararası pazarlarda rekabet avantajı elde ettiği ve bu rekabet avantajının kaynağının da sektörde yaşanan maliyet stratejilerinden farklılaşmaya kayan stratejik değişiklik olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır. Bu sonuç daha önce yapılan çalışmaların maliyetlere dayalı avantajı açıklamaları ile paralellik arz etmemektedir. Çalışma, bu farklı sonuç ile sektörün rekabet avantajı kaynağı konusunda yeni bir açıklama sunmaktadır.
  • Political Geography: Turkey
8820. Editorial
  • Author: James F. Keeley, John R. Ferris
  • Publication Date: 01-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Military and Strategic Studies
  • Institution: Centre for Military and Strategic Studies
  • Abstract: Welcome to the Winter 2008 edition of the Journal of Military and Strategic Studies (JMSS). As one of the few electronic journals dedicated to the study of security related issues in Canada, we are pleased to provide a forum in which security issues can be examined and discussed.
  • Topic: Security, Politics, War
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, Canada
  • Author: James F. Keeley, John R. Ferris
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Military and Strategic Studies
  • Institution: Centre for Military and Strategic Studies
  • Abstract: The announcement of the retirement of General Rick Hillier as Canada's Chief of Defence Staff has sparked much comment about his impact on the Canadian Forces and public. He is credited with having restored the morale of the Forces, with securing more funding and equipment, and with positively raising the Forces' profile among the public. Bad memories from Mogadishu have been expunged. Everyone "supports our troops", as the public mantra goes, even those who dislike their engagement in Afghanistan. That engagement reflects other effects of General Hillier. He has raised the influence on policy of the Canadian Forces among mandarins in Ottawa and the country, and expanded public notions of the uses of the Canadian Forces beyond UN-associated peacekeeping (and a hushed association with NATO).
  • Topic: United Nations
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, Canada
8822. Editorial
  • Author: Cindy Strömer, Andrew Sullivan
  • Publication Date: 07-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Military and Strategic Studies
  • Institution: Centre for Military and Strategic Studies
  • Abstract: The Strategic Studies Student Conference (S3C), is the largest student-organized The Strategic Studies Student Conference (S3C), is the largest student-organized conference for students across the country to participate in academic presentations. This year, the tenth anniversary of the conference, students from as far as Uzbekistan submitted over sixty paper proposals. The paper selection committee, consisting primarily of masters and PhD students from the Centre for Military and Strategic Studies, grouped the successful proposals into nine conference panels. The twenty-seven successful participants mostly came from the University of Calgary and other Canadian universities. The conference enjoyed the participation of international student delegates from Amsterdam University and Helmut Schmidt University in Germany. Panel topics were diverse and comprehensive including: "Countering Terror and Fostering Security", "Security Through Red and White Coloured Lenses: Canadian Perspectives and Issues", "Making Security Private and Profitable: and Private Military Companies", "Security Set in Eastern Europe", "Transformation and Evaluation for Security", "Fuelling the Debate: World-wide Energy Security", "Words, Pictures, and Beyond: Communicating Security", "Deciphering Security: Cryptography and Intelligence", and "Building Security: Roles and Responsibilities".
  • Topic: Security
  • Political Geography: Europe, Uzbekistan, Germany
8823. Editorial
  • Author: James F. Keeley, John R. Ferris
  • Publication Date: 10-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Military and Strategic Studies
  • Institution: Centre for Military and Strategic Studies
  • Abstract: Welcome to this double issue (Issue 1 and 2 of Volume 11) of The Journal of Military and Strategic Studies.
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: Change can occur in different ways. Sometimes it is revolutionary, as in France in 1789 or the "British Invasion" in 1963. More often, however, change tends to be evolutionary—proceeding subtly, discreetly, even, at times, imperceptibly. That is why many readers might not even notice that there are a number of changes, both visual and substantive, that distinguish this issue of EIA from those that have come before it. Look carefully at the front and back covers and you will notice that colors and fonts have been altered ever so slightly, that the front cover offers more information about what is actually in the issue, and that overall the appearance is neater and more accessible. The same can be said for the Contents page as well. You will also note that we are now employing the terms Essays and Features—the former to indicate shorter, non-peer-reviewed articles, the latter to indicate longer works that have undergone the extensive peer-review process. (For more on this, we refer you to "Guidelines for Submission" at the back of this issue.) In fact, the Contents page introduces a third new term, "Resources," which for the first time directs readers to a special page on the Carnegie Council website designed to provide a comprehensive list of related materials drawn from the Council's vast trove of publications and other products, including podcasts, videos, and transcripts. Whether you are pursuing research or simply curious, we are confident our new Resources page will be of great value, and we invite your feedback as to its format and utility. As important as the covers may be, what is of course far more important is what appears between them. And in this area, too, we have implemented some changes, specifically related to article length. In recent years a number of our readers have let us know that, as much as they have enjoyed and benefited from the unique ethical perspective of EIA, they had concerns regarding the length of some articles. Upon revisiting our submission guidelines we discovered that we had indeed violated Our own stated word prescriptions, and realized that we did not so much need to revise the guidelines as simply to enforce them. Consequently, you will find the following articles to be somewhat shorter (but no less valuable!) than before. Finally, an astute eye will no doubt notice that several new names appear on the masthead. As with any publication, editorial members come and go, and no doubt these names will change yet again in the future. That, after all, is as it should be.
  • Author: Yvonne Terlingen
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: Kofi Annan did more than any UN Secretary-General before him to stress the close link between human rights and peace and security. In his inaugural address to the newly created Human Rights Council in Geneva on June 19, 2006, he said: ''. . . lack of respect for human rights and dignity is the fundamental reason why the peace of the world today is so precarious, and why prosperity is so unequally shared.'' With the creation of the Human Rights Council, ''a new era in the human rights work of the United Nations has been proclaimed.''
  • Topic: Security, Human Rights, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Geneva
  • Author: Adam Branch
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: With its 2003 ''Referral of the Situation Concerning the Lord's Resistance Army'' to the International Criminal Court (ICC), the Ugandan government launched a legal process that, it claimed, would bring peace and justice to war-torn northern Uganda. The ICC prosecutor officially opened an investigation in response to the referral in July 2004, and in October 2005 the ICC unsealed arrest warrants, its historic first warrants in its historic first case, charging five of the top commanders of the rebel Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) with war crimes and crimes against humanity. For two decades, Uganda north of the Nile has been ravaged by a brutal civil war between the LRA and the Ugandan government, so any possibility of productive change is to be warmly welcomed. The sanguine predictions proffered by the Ugandan government and by the ICC's supporters, however, are called into question by doubts about the court's ability to achieve peace or justice in Uganda, doubts stemming from the specific way the ICC has pursued the Ugandan case, and because of more inherent problems with the ICC as a legal institution.
  • Topic: Government, War
  • Political Geography: Uganda
  • Author: Thomas Hurka
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: This paper is a response to Jeff McMahan's "Just Cause for War" (Ethics International Affairs, 19.3, 2005). McMahan holds, as many have, that there is a just cause for war against group X only if X have made themselves liable to military force by being responsible for some serious wrong. But he interprets this liability requirement in a very strict way. He insists (i) that one may use force against X for purpose Y only if they are responsible for a wrong specifically connected to Y; and (ii) that one may use force against an individual member of X only if he himself shares in the responsibility for the wrong. This paper defends a more permissive, and more traditional, view of just war liability against McMahan's claims. Against (i) it argues that certain 'conditional just causes' such as disarming an aggressor, deterring future aggression, and preventing lesser humanitarian crimes can be legitimate goals of war against X even if X have no specific liability connected to them. Against (ii) it argues that soldiers who have no responsibility for X's wrong may nonetheless be legitimately attacked because in becoming soldiers they freely surrendered their right not to be killed by enemy combatants in a war between their and another state, so killing them in such a war is not unjust. Though initially a criticism of McMahan, the paper makes positive proposals about conditional just causes and the moral justification for directing force at soldiers.
  • Topic: War
  • Author: Luis Cabrera
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: Despite some limited moves toward openness and accountability, suprastate policy formation in such bodies as the World Trade Organization remains fundamentally exclusive of individuals within states. This article critiques the "don't kill the goose" arguments commonly offered in defense of such exclusions. It highlights similarities between those arguments and past arguments for elitist forms of democracy, where strict limitations are advocated on the participation of non-elites in the name of allowing leaders to act most effectively in the broad public interest. Advocated here is movement toward a strongly empowered WTO parliamentary body that would be guided in practice by a principle of democratic symmetry, attempting to match input to the increasing impacts of WTO governance. A parliament with co-decision powers broadly similar to those of the European Parliament is offered as a long-term institutional ideal.
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Anthony F. Lang, Jr.
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: Should states be held responsible and punished for violations of international law? The recent ruling by the International Court of Justice that Serbia cannot be held responsible for genocide in Bosnia reflects the predominant international legal position. But, such a position leaves open the possibility that states or non-state agents can never be held responsible for international crimes. This article argues that they can and should be. While most international ethicists and legal theorists reject the punishment of corporate entities such as states, this article argues that certain types of international violations can only be undertaken by states, and, as a result, states must be bear the responsibility for them. Drawing on some neglected strands in international law and political theory, the article sketches a potential institutional framework for the punishment of state crimes, particularly genocide and aggression.
  • Topic: International Law
  • Political Geography: Bosnia, Serbia
  • Author: Blake Michael
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: These two books are the inaugural releases in Norton's Issues of Our Time series, but they are linked by much more than this fact. Each is a measured attack on the cultural separatism prevalent in many academic and policy circles. According to the cultural separatism thesis, cultures or nations are morally central groups in the world; membership in such groups is both ethically significant and explanatorily powerful; and the borders of cultural and national groups must be preserved against outside influence. This thesis is rejected by both Appiah and Sen, in subtly different ways. Each book, moreover, is extraordinarily personal. Appiah and Sen illustrate their theoretical points with reference to their own experiences and the experiences of their families. The books represent excellence in philosophical reasoning, but only philosophers whose relationship to these issues is more than simply academic could have produced these works.
  • Author: Clare Chambers
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: In April 2006, Catharine MacKinnon was interviewed about her new book, Are Women Human?, for BBC Radio 4's "Woman's Hour." The presenter, Jenni Murray, had one main question that she repeated throughout the short interview to the exclusion of any discussion of MacKinnon's arguments: Wasn't the book's title simply too controversial to be taken seriously?
  • Author: Fiona Robinson
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: Carol Gould's Globalizing Democracy and Human Rights is an impressive, sweeping analysis of some of the most pressing questions in contemporary political philosophy and international ethics. While the book's focus is practical—how to "globalize" democracy, and how to make globalization more democratic—Gould does not shy away from hard theoretical questions, such as the relentless debate over cultural relativism, as well as less-often tackled issues of "embodied politics" and women's rights, and the relationship between terrorism and democracy. The result is a book that is almost overwhelming in scope, yet is saved by a rich, balanced, convincing, and unhectoring analysis.
  • Topic: Human Rights, Terrorism
  • Author: Jennifer Pitts
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: A Turn to Empire contributes to a project among liberals in recent years to dust off liberalism's historical complexities. In an elegant, impressively documented, and rigorously argued narrative, Jennifer Pitts asserts that imperialism was not essential to the liberal project, as is so often alleged by its critics, most recently and systematically by Uday Singh Mehta in his important study Liberalism and Empire (University of Chicago Press, 1999).
  • Political Geography: Britain, France, Chicago
  • Author: Stuart A. Cohen
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: This volume of collected essays, most of which have been published in earlier volumes in the Ethikon Series in Comparative Ethics, seeks to bring a more concentrated focus on specifically Jewish outlooks regarding three key themes: "Political Order and Civil Society"; "Territory, Sovereignty, and International Society"; and "War and Peace." According to Michael Walzer, "The point is to display a range of Jewish responses to some of the hardest questions posed by modern democratic politics"
  • Topic: Politics, Sovereignty, War, Law
  • Author: Marcus A. Roberts
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: Peter Beinart's new book offers the Democratic Party a "new liberalism," a vision he bases on the party's history of moral leadership and success in combating totalitarianism in the post–World War II era. Opposing those who demonize the "liberal" label, Beinart holds up liberalism as the theme by which America achieved national greatness in the past and the means by which it might do so once again—if only the Democratic Party would embrace it fully once more.
  • Topic: War
  • Political Geography: America
  • Author: Sangbum Shin
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: University of British Columbia
  • Abstract: This paper examines the regional environmental co-operation in East Asia at the local government level, focusing on the intercity environmental co-operation between the two cities in Japan and China—Kitakyushu and Dalian—as a case. Theoretically, this case demonstrates the dynamic nature of local government level environmental co-operation in the sense that all the three levels—government, local government, and private—are closely interconnected, and the major actors—the firms—play a role in shaping the outcome of intercity co-operation. Also, in terms of policy implication, this case is important not just for East Asian but also global environmental politics because it is the co-operation between cities in China and Japan—the two most important countries in East Asia that affect regional and global environmental protections efforts seriously. In order to investigate the reasons of success, and the dynamic nature of intercity environmental co-operation, this paper suggests a framework for analysis on the relationship between multiple dimensions of regional environmental co-operation, and then, examines the historical process and the details of the case and explains why this case has been remarkably successful and produced significant outcome. Finally, it draws some theoretical as well as policy implications of this case in terms of possibilities for and limitations of East Asian regional environmental co-operation in the future.
  • Topic: Environment, Government
  • Political Geography: Japan, China, East Asia
  • Author: Julie Gilson
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: University of British Columbia
  • Abstract: In Japan, debates about the nature of peacekeeping contributions continue alongside questions regarding the relevance of Japan's constitution in the twenty-first century and the political implications of aid disbursement. This article seeks to illustrate how both Official Development Assistance and peacekeeping operations are being linked through Japan's "peace consolidation diplomacy." For historical reasons, the Japanese government has been unable to play a traditional peacekeeping role. At the same time, Japan's position as leading aid donor has received negative feedback from a recession-bound populous that now views key recipient countries as competitors rather than needy neighbours. As a result, issues pertaining to humanitarian intervention, peacekeeping and aid provision frequently overlap, as Japan searches for a means of playing a constructive international role commensurate with the expectations of the rest of the world and with Japan's own claim for a place on the permanent UN Security Council. This article examines Japanese debates surrounding the sending military personnel to crisis areas and the changing provision of aid, against a background of changing concepts of humanitarian intervention, peacekeeping and assistance. It illustrates how hte Japanese government utilizes a combined narrative of peacekeeping, humanitarian intervention and aid giving, in order simultaneously to soften the public response to sending peacekeepers and to respond to increasingly targeted international demands for a more substantial Japanese contribution to conflict resolution.
  • Topic: Peacekeeping
  • Political Geography: Japan
  • Author: Mireya Solís, Saori N. Katada
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: University of British Columbia
  • Abstract: A key feature of East Asian FTA diplomacy remains unacknowledged and, therefore, unaccounted for: the activism displayed in seeking preferential trading relations with countries outside the region. While European and North American countries have also pursued cross-regional trade agreements (CRTAs), East Asia is unique in pursuing extra-regional partnerships before consolidating the regional trade integration process. This framework article identifies the common patterns and fundamental factors behind the East Asian governments' moves towards establishing CRTAs. After laying out the conventional arguments—ranging from the extra-regional market dependence, the region's security arrangements, and economic and political motives behind East Asia's extra-regional interests—the article introduces the novel concept of "leverage." This notion highlights how cross-regional and intra-regional FTA initiatives are intimately linked: East Asian countries frequently choose an extraregional FTA partner in order to break regional inertias that hinder integration, to win domestic battles, and to appropriate extra-regional negotiation modalities that they can use in their subsequent intra-regional FTA negotiations. The article concludes with a summary of the findings from the country cases, and the policy implications of East Asia's porous regionalism, with its heavy doses of cross-regional trade initiatives.
  • Topic: Diplomacy
  • Political Geography: East Asia, North America
  • Author: Sung-Hoon Park, Min Gyo Koo
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: University of British Columbia
  • Abstract: CRTAs have become a main feature of South Korea's newly found enthusiasm for a multi-track FTA strategy. In this study, we examine the rise of South Korea's aggressive FTA initiatives, with a special focus on the first cross-Pacific FTA, namely the South Korea-Chile FTA, and draw implications for South Korea's other RTA initiatives. South Korea's motivations to pursue CRTAs are complex. These include economic, political and diplomatic/leverage motives. South Korea's policy departure from its long-standing support for the multilateral trading system began with its FTA negotiations with Chile, a country located on the opposite side of the globe. Aside from the South Korea-Chile FTA, South Korea has been negotiating a number of other CRTAs. Most importantly, South Korea and the US began to negotiate a bilateral FTA in June 2006, the successful conclusion of which will have significant economic and strategic repercussions not only for South Korea but also for its neighboring East Asian countries. The economic and strategic motivations of the political leadership, as well as the new bureaucratic balance of power centered on the Office of the Minister for Trade, have played a significant role in South Korea's dramatic rush toward RTAs. Although South Korea's pursuit of RTAs does not necessarily mean that it has completely abandoned the multilateral trading system, the policy departure is increasingly becoming obvious and significant.
  • Topic: Diplomacy
  • Political Geography: United States, South Korea, Chile
  • Author: Mireya Solís, Saori N. Katada
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: University of British Columbia
  • Abstract: By most accounts, Japan and Mexico remain distant economic partners with only a modest volume of bilateral trade and foreign direct investment, and a large geographical and cultural gulf between them. By this depiction, the Japanese decision to negotiate with Mexico is puzzling if not downright nonsensical: Why would Japan invest so much political capital in the negotiation of a complex free trade agreement (FTA) with a nation accounting for such a minuscule share of its international economic exchange? Solís and Katada challenge this interpretation of Japan's second bilateral FTA ever, and demonstrate that far from being irrational or insignificant, the stakes involved in the Japan-Mexico FTA were very high, and that this crossregional initiative stands to exert powerful influence over the future evolution of Japan's shift towards economic regionalism. For a number of Japanese industries (automobiles, electronics and government procurement contractors) negotiating with Mexico was essential to level the playing field vis-à-vis their American and European rivals, which already enjoyed preferential access to the Mexican market based on their FTAs. For the Japanese trade bureaucrats, negotiations with Mexico offered an opportunity to tip the domestic balance in favour of an active FTA diplomacy, despite the opposition of the agricultural lobby. Negotiations with Mexico constituted a litmus test, both for the Japanese government and in the eyes of potential FTA partners in Asia, on whether Japan could offer a satisfactory liberalization package to prospective FTA partners to make these negotiations worthwhile.
  • Topic: Diplomacy
  • Political Geography: Japan, America, Asia, Mexico
  • Author: Stephen Hoadley
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: University of British Columbia
  • Abstract: This article surveys the free trade agreement (FTA) initiatives of three governments: Singapore, Thailand and Malaysia. It examines each in a search for motives, not only for negotiating FTAs within the region but also for reaching outside Asia to find negotiating partners. It finds that the presumption of economic gain as the primary motive must be qualified because the markets of many of the extra-regional partners are relatively small in Asian terms, and their trade and investment barriers are already amongst the lowest in the world. This is especially true of New Zealand and Chile, which nevertheless are becoming popular extra-regional partners for Asian governments. While the national and sectoral economic motives announced by the trade spokespeople for Singapore, Thailand and Malaysia are acknowledged as predominant, this article goes beyond such declarations to explore the explicit and implicit diplomatic, political and bureaucratic aims that could account more fully for these trade negotiation initiatives. In accordance with the conceptual analysis presented by Solís and Katada in this issue of Pacific Affairs, the drivers of FTAs are grouped into three broad categories: 1) economic motives; 2) security and diplomatic motives; and 3) leverage motives. Seven hypotheses derived from these categories are employed to guide this survey of recent FTA initiatives by Singapore, Thailand and Malaysia, and to explore their reasons for engaging with FTA partners both outside and within the Southeast Asian region.
  • Topic: Security, Diplomacy
  • Political Geography: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Southeast Asia
  • Author: Stephen Hoadley, Jian Yang
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: University of British Columbia
  • Abstract: This article surveys the recent initiation of free trade talks by China. Of particular interest are the motives driving this innovation, particularly as regards negotiations with distant rather than regional partners, known as cross-regional trade agreements or CRTAs. This investigation is guided by the conceptual analysis presented by Solís and Katada in this issue of Pacific Affairs. The authors find that the initiation of cross-regional preferential trading links allows the Chinese leadership to speed up economic development, to hedge against future trade diversion in other regions of the world, to pursue domestic reform at their own chosen pace, to develop negotiating expertise in a less tense political environment, and to advance core interests in foreign economic policy and security policy by validating the concept of a peaceful rise to power. China's recent pursuit of crossregional FTAs is thus significant not only for the economic benefits they promise but also for their enhancement of China's national power and capacity for international leadership without provoking conflict. As a supplement to China's diplomacy, crossregional FTA negotiations must be recognized as an important new element of China's long-term international strategy.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy
  • Political Geography: China
  • Author: Irene Khan
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The World Today
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: When former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's son Bilawal became the leader of her Pakistan People's Party, following her assassination, he told the crowds that 'My mother always said democracy is the best revenge'. Yet, despite the fact parliamentary elections are now scheduled for February 18, Amnesty International sensed a general mood of hopelessness during a recent visit to the country. 'Pakistan is lost' was a refrain heard in many places.
  • Political Geography: Pakistan
  • Author: Anatol Lieven
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The World Today
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: Risk analysts are getting it wrong in Pakistan. Fears of an Islamic state, or loose nukes – the capture of the nation's arsenal by extremists – will only come about if the west makes policy mistakes. Instead, long-term issues like climate change and population growth are the real threats.
  • Political Geography: Pakistan
  • Author: Kate Bailey
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The World Today
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: The days when the consumer could command ample supplies of ever-cheaper delicacies from around the world may be over for ever. Food prices are rising dramatically, and probably permanently, hitting the world's leading economies. In developing countries, there have been queues for wheat in Pakistan, a shortage of rice in Bangladesh and Afghanistan has appealed for international help with supplies. Mealtime is about to become an important international issue for everyone.
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Britain, Afghanistan, Bangladesh
  • Author: Alex Vines
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The World Today
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: A televised post-election crisis in Kenya demands a government response, but where are the west's partners in Africa and what are the strategic interests? And as several more states prepare to vote, which are the ones to watch?
  • Political Geography: Kenya, Africa
  • Author: Charlie Edwards
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The World Today
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: Faced with the risks of organised crime, terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the public likes to believe that government is doing all it can to protect them. The idea that there might be inertia, or turf wars between departments charged with keeping them safe, is deeply disturbing. Now, the British government is publishing its first national security strategy, a chance to assess the threats and how best to respond.
  • Author: William Wallace
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The World Today
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: Foreign ministries are more used to reporting on revolutions than being caught up in them. But now longstanding diplomatic practice faces its biggest challenge for generations. In an increasingly electronic environment, foreign services are squeezed between ambitious presidents and prime ministers who seek the limelight and the way domestic issues have become increasingly international.
  • Author: Malcolm Rifkind
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The World Today
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: The new man has arrived in the Kremlin as unexpectedly as his predecessor, who made the selection this time. With the Russian political season only half over – the formal presidential election is next month – thoughts are already focused on the decisions ahead.
  • Political Geography: Russia, Kremlin
  • Author: Simon Collinson, Bridgette Sullivan-Taylor
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The World Today
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: IN THE 1970S AND 1980S THERE WAS a widespread fear in the west of Japanese economic superiority. Unprecedented growth in its gross domestic product (GDP), exports and outward foreign direct investment suggested an alternative model of market capitalism that was out-performing the United States and European economies. High-profile articles and books fed this fear and research efforts tried to identify what was different about Japan and how such differences might convey sustained competitive advantages.
  • Political Geography: United States, Japan, China
  • Author: Carl Robichaud
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: World Policy Institute
  • Abstract: Afghanistan is increasingly seen as Iraq in slow motion. It is not. The headlines of car bombs and casualty tolls echo each other, but mask deep differences in each society and in the dynamics of each insurgency. As Iraq has descended into civil war, Afghanistan's center has held. The government remains weak, but power holders and the public show no appetite for a return to internecine fighting. The insurgency remains solvent because of safe havens across the border in Pakistan, but has been unable to expand upon its toehold in Afghanistan or offer a compelling alternative to the status quo.
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iraq
  • Author: Kamil Mahdi
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: World Policy Institute
  • Abstract: In May 2007, a draft Oil and Gas Law was sent by the Iraqi cabinet to Parliament, and according to government plans, it was to have been passed into law by the end of May. The law faces strong popular, technocratic, and political resistance—indeed in early June, the new Iraqi military was in the southern oilfields with a warrant to arrest leaders of the Iraq Federation of Oil Unions who oppose core sections of the law and who demand that no law is passed without consultation with civil society and themselves as principal elements within it. Parliament subsequently went into summer recess without considering the draft.
  • Political Geography: Iraq
  • Author: Mira Kamdar
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: World Policy Institute
  • Abstract: The boundless jubilation on this side of the Atlantic over the recent election of Nicholas Sarkozy as the new president of France says more about the American malaise than it does about the French. True, a record number of voters turned out to help Sarkozy handily beat his opponent, Socialist candidate Segolene Royal, by a margin of 53 percent to 47 percent in the second round of the presidential election in May. But, the legislative elections held about one month later demonstrate that French voters may be more wary of Sarkozy than are American observers. Though Sarkozy's party, the Union pour un Mouvement Populaire (UMP), maintained a solid majority in the National Assembly, it unexpectedly lost 45 seats. The Socialists, still in the minority, picked up 36 seats. This still leaves the UMP with 314 out of a total of 577 seats, versus the Socialist's 185, and Sarkozy has underlined the fact that he considers himself to have no less of a strong mandate for this disappointing result. However, the legislative elections did produce one major casualty for Sarkozy: the man he had named to run the ambitiously titled new Ministry of Environment, Transportation and Energy, Alain Juppe, lost his seat in Bordeaux and had to resign his post. Sarkozy was forced, under the rules of France's democracy, to dissolve his brand new government and reshuffle his cabinet. This cast an embarrassing shadow over what might otherwise have been a thorough rout, and gave hope to France's Left that not all had been lost.
  • Political Geography: America, Paris, France
  • Author: Mark Gilbert
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: World Policy Institute
  • Abstract: Back in the pre-history of the early Cold War, Italy's politics used to be bitterly divided along ideological lines. On the one side, there were the Christian Democrats, strong from the support of the Catholic Church, and its centrist allies. On the other side, there were the Communists. When the Cold War ended, the party system collapsed, but the hope was raised that Italy might become a "normal country."
  • Topic: Cold War
  • Political Geography: Italy
  • Author: Paul Hockenos, Jenni Winterhagen
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: World Policy Institute
  • Abstract: Among old Balkan hands, it is said tongue-in-cheek that the surest way to start a war in former Yugoslavia is to hold a referendum on independence. Indeed, in Bosnia, Croatia, and Slovenia, armed conflict did follow popular votes and declarations of statehood in the early 1990s. But Montenegro, a mountainous republic of just 630,000 in the western Balkans, was and remains different, for a variety of reasons. One year after its declaration of independence, it boasts stability and macroeconomic growth. Yet the question of exactly what kind of democracy Montenegro will be still looms large. The newly independent country is in the process of making critical choices with implications that will impact its political culture for decades to come.
  • Topic: Culture
  • Political Geography: Bosnia, Croatia
  • Author: Todd Gitlin
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: World Policy Institute
  • Abstract: Is there any question about whether the United States must protect itself against mass murderers who devoutly believe that brutality is their ticket to paradise? The question is silly, or worse. When addressed strictly to progressives, it amounts to a calumny. Why should such a question be asked of liberals alone, and not of the conservatives who ignored warnings when the al-Qaeda plot to massacre thousands was well underway and the country's defenses were down?
  • Topic: Politics
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Joshua Brook
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: World Policy Institute
  • Abstract: Since the 2000 presidential election, political scientists, commentators, and intellectuals have seized on the "red state"/"blue state" divide to explain American politics. The United States is described as a single country with two distinct cultures. Red Americans tend to oppose abortion, regard homosexuality as moral deviance, respect the military, and look kindly on public displays of religious faith. Blue Americans, on the other hand, support environmentalism, abortion rights, gender equality, and gay rights, while opposing militarism and overt displays of patriotism and religious zeal.
  • Topic: Globalization, Government, Political Economy
  • Political Geography: United States, America
  • Author: Susan Waltz
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: World Policy Institute
  • Abstract: Does United States policy indeed represent the gold standard for export controls on small arms, as often asserted? Recent events suggest that it is time for a fresh look at this common claim.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, International Relations, Politics
  • Political Geography: United States, Middle East
  • Author: Forrest D. Colburn
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: World Policy Institute
  • Abstract: Algerian diplomat Lakhdar Brahimi has a distinguished history in the politics of what has long been known as the "Third World," most of which were once beleaguered colonies of Europe. After the Asian-African Conference in Bandung, Indonesia, in 1955--the first coming together of the non-aligned movement--Lakhdar was sent to Indonesia by the National Liberation Front of Algeria to open its first office in Asia.
  • Political Geography: Africa, Europe, Indonesia, Asia, Algeria
  • Author: Milan Hauner
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: World Policy Institute
  • Abstract: Sixty-five years ago, on May 27, 1942, Reinhard Heydrich, the Nazi viceroy of the German Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, was assassinated in broad daylight in a Prague suburb by Josef Gabcik and Jan Kubis, two Czechoslovak paratroopers dressed as civilians. Although the assassination had been carefully prepared months in advance, many things went wrong.
  • Topic: Terrorism
  • Political Geography: Germany
  • Author: Shareen Blair Brysac
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: World Policy Institute
  • Abstract: Tehran, April 25, 1926. The Persian capital is bathed in sun and carpets--Kermans, Kashans, Kashmars--cluster edge to edge, covering balconies and windows. Red, white, and green bunting stretches across the streets and hundreds of pictures of the new monarch, Reza Khan Pahlavi, a former Persian Cossack colonel, hang from scaffolding as he makes his way through a triumphal arch and lines of soldiers to his coronation in his glass carriage a la Cinderella drawn by six horses. Waiting for him in the Gulistan Palace is an Armenian priest smothered in purple velvet, a Turcoman wearing a tunic of rose-red silk, his head wrapped in a great lambswool busby, an assortment of Kurds in fringed silk turbans, Bakhtiari tribesmen sporting black felt hats, and bearded Shiite mullahs in long robes and gigantic turbans.
  • Author: Karl E. Meyer
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: World Policy Institute
  • Abstract: To escape New York's summer heat, my wife and I fled to the United Kingdom, only to plunge from the griddle into the washbasin. “Water levels still rising as thousands hit by worst floods in modern British history,” headlined The Guardian (July 24). As if to make American visitors feel right at home, the adjoining headline elaborated: “Ministers warned three years ago over flood defense failings.” Think of it: here is a country not unused to rain and yet its officials were caught by surprise when a 3-inch surge occurring within 60 minutes turned the Midlands into a lake, leaving as many as 350,000 homes without power and/or water. Yet, in shades of FEMA, Prime Minister Tony Blair's Labor government had failed to act on reports in 2004 and 2005 that spoke firmly of the need to overhaul obsolete flood defenses, integrate emergency responses, and coordinate information services.
  • Political Geography: New York, United Kingdom, America
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University
  • Abstract: We are pleased to present the 2007 edition of the Journal of Public and International Affairs (JPIA). Now in its eighteenth year, JPIA publishes the work of graduate students from schools of public and international affairs, providing young scholars with a unique forum to present original research and analysis on issues of domestic and international concern. JPIA also provides an opportunity for professional and intellectual exchange among the members of the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs (APSIA).
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Elizabeth L. Chalecki
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University
  • Abstract: Anthropogenic climate change will have its greatest effect on the Arctic, which will experience impacts ranging from increasing ambient air temperature to glacier and sea ice melting to permafrost thaw. This altered environment will result in new national security concerns for circumpolar nations such as the United States, including increased Arctic access by Russia and other nations; competition over newly accessible fossil fuel resources; and loss of Arctic military facilities resulting from permafrost thaw and land subsidence. Although these effects will be felt cumulatively over the coming decades, the United States must make the necessary strategic changes now in order to prevail in this new security environment. The United States should retrain and re-equip military forces for greater Arctic operability, work toward a clear legal understanding of open sea access in newly ice-free waters, and consider implementing a joint circumpolar security apparatus to facilitate adaptation to this new globally-warmed Arctic.
  • Political Geography: Russia, United States
  • Author: Guanghua Wan
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: United Nations University
  • Abstract: A large group of smallish countries totalling about a billion people have sheered off from the rest of mankind. As the world becomes more socially integrated this giant pool of poverty will be both unacceptable and explosive. It is the world's biggest economic problem and we need to do something about it. To know what to do we need to start with a diagnosis. While the common fate of the bottom billion has been stagnation and poverty there has been no single cause. In my recently published book The Bottom Billion I propose four distinct traps that between them account for the problem, each requiring a distinct remedy. I also argue that globalization, though it has been benign for the majority of the developing world, is not working for the bottom billion and is not likely to do so. On the contrary, it is liable to make them increasingly marginalized.
  • Political Geography: China, Europe
  • Author: Christina Bache Fidan
  • Publication Date: 04-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: ARI Movement
  • Abstract: Historically, if you were not a property owning white male you did not have the right to vote in America. The decision to allow women the right to vote, after a long struggle, in 1920, was a key turning point in the transformation of the American democratic experience. The challenge from then on, of making this right meaningful across America, through changing mindsets and training women, was left, for the most part, on the shoulders of civil society. To secure a higher representation of the national congressional seats in Washington, the Federal Government must reinforce legislation such as affirmative action for gender mainstreaming in all policy areas. The inclusion and empowerment of women in the political arena is of utmost importance to achieving a government that is truly "by the people, for the people."
  • Topic: Government
  • Political Geography: America, Europe
  • Author: Terence Ball
  • Publication Date: 08-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: Faculty of Humanities, Development and Social Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
  • Abstract: The too-often unhappy 'marriage' of political theory and political science has long been a source of anguish for both partners. Should this troubled partnership be dissolved? Or might this marriage yet be saved? Ball answers the former question negatively and the latter affirmatively. Playing the part of therapist instead of theorist, he selectively recounts a number of episodes which estranged the partners and strained the marriage. And yet, he concludes that the conflicts were in hindsight more constructive than destructive, benefiting both partners in heretofore unexpected ways and perhaps paving a path toward reconciliation and rapprochement.
  • Topic: Politics
  • Author: Christian Fuchs, John Collier
  • Publication Date: 08-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: Faculty of Humanities, Development and Social Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
  • Abstract: Economic logic impinges on contemporary political theory through both economic reductionism and economic methodology applied to political decision-making (through game theory). The authors argue that the sort of models used are based on mechanistic and linear methodologies that have now been found wanting in physics. They further argue that complexity based self-organization methods are better suited to model the complexities of economy and polity and their interactions with the overall social system.
  • Topic: Politics
  • Author: Patrick Giddy
  • Publication Date: 08-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: Faculty of Humanities, Development and Social Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
  • Abstract: Standards of excellence in the sphere of work are often taken to be at odds with our ethical obligations in general. In an age of commerce little attention is paid to how the manner in which things are done impacts on the agent's character. Jane Jacobs' phenomenology of our moral intuitions about the public world of work reveal two frameworks, the 'commercial moral syndrome' stressing fairness, and the 'guardian moral syndrome' emphasizing loyalty. In the latter set of values we have a way of countering the bias of contemporary culture. This is best understood as a modified Aristotelian approach. The example of adversarial advocacy in the legal profession is taken as an illustration.
  • Topic: Culture
  • Author: Roger Deacon
  • Publication Date: 08-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: Faculty of Humanities, Development and Social Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
  • Abstract: Globalization presages an important new stage in the centuries-old 'civilizing process,' which Norbert Elias analyzed with such clarity and in such depth. At the root of the fundamental transformations of our world of nation-states are combined integrating and disintegrating tendencies, or centralization and individualization, which manifest themselves in a steady monopolization of the means of violence and taxation, an interventionist human rights discourse, and war as a means of democratizing and pacifying the planet. Elias' 'historical social psychological' approach offers new categories of analysis with which to both explain the effects of globalization and indicate how international interdependence fosters both control and resistance, both democratization and radicalization, and both integration and disintegration.
  • Topic: Democratization, Globalization
  • Author: Pedro Alexis Tabensky
  • Publication Date: 08-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: Faculty of Humanities, Development and Social Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
  • Abstract: In this paper I criticize political realism in International Relations for not being realistic enough, for being unrealistically pessimistic and ultimately incoherent. For them the international arena will always be a place where a battle of wills, informed by the logic of power, is fought. I grant that it may be true that the international political domain is a place where such battles are fought, but this alleged infelicitous situation does not in and of itself entail the normative pessimism informing their assessments of the international domain, and it does not entail the recommendations offered by political realists, particularly relating to balance of power concerns. Their lack of realism stems from total or partial blindness to the proper and coherent ideals that ought to be informing their analyses of the international domain. Such blindness does not allow them properly to grasp what actually is the case. As we can only properly understand what an eye is by knowing the ideal that defines eyes — proper vision — so too we can only properly identify the movements of the international political arena in relation to ideals that ultimately define this arena, ideals that stem from a proper understanding of the human person. Following an Aristotelian teleological technique of analysis, I show that ideals are a constitutive part of the international domain and I recommend an alternative to political realism, namely, realistic idealism (or, if you prefer, idealistic realism).
  • Topic: International Relations
  • Author: John W. Dietrich
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: In his January 2003 State of the Union Address, President Bush called for the U.S to commit $15 billion over five years to address the international HIV/AIDS epidemic. For several reasons, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) caught many people by surprise. The surprise quickly was followed by excitement, tempered by skepticism.
  • Topic: Politics
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Robyn Eckersley
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: This essay seeks to extend the already controversial debate about humanitarian intervention by exploring the morality, legality, and legitimacy of ecological intervention and its corollary, ecological defense.
  • Topic: Humanitarian Aid
  • Author: Mathew Humphrey
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: "I am sympathetic to Eckersley's assessment of the importance of these problems, but there are certain implications of her (albeit qualified) endorsement of ecological intervention that are worth exploring."
  • Author: Simon Dalby
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: Robyn Eckersley's elegant and eloquent argument concerning the limits of "ecological intervention" is constrained by the scope of what is included in her definition of environmental emergency, by what might be in need of protection, and also by what is conventionally understood by notions of intervention related to states and sovereign territory.
  • Author: Clare Palmer
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: Though there is much to engage with throughout the article, I shall only focus on one small part of it: the viability of military or legal intervention, in cases that are tentatively described as "crimes against nature." This is due to the difficulties posed by a non-anthropocentric and non-instrumental approach.
  • Author: Mark Woods
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: Eckersley's arguments for pre-emptive ecological-humanitarian intervention and ecological defense are intriguing. However, the delicacy of these scenarios requires careful attention to the feasibility and overall benefits of the usage of military force in the prevention of crimes against nature.
  • Topic: Humanitarian Aid
  • Author: Nancy Kokaz
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: Poverty eradication has been identified as the largest challenge facing international society in its quest for a peaceful, prosperous, and just world. Kokaz responds to this challenge by proposing a global poverty eradication principle.
  • Author: Lisa Forman
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: In perpetuating and exacerbating restricted access to essential medicines, current trade-related intellectual property rules on medicines may violate core human rights to health and medicines. In this light, there should be serious questions about their necessity, and their justification should be critically assessed from the perspective of human rights standards.
  • Topic: Human Rights
  • Author: Alessandra Arcuri
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: This essay contributes to the debate on the precautionary principle in two ways: 1) it clarifies what is entailed by a mild formulation of the principle and 2) it identifies a number of misconceptions underlying some of its main criticisms.
  • Author: Barbara Crossette
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: With a new secretary-general now in charge and the memories of the bitter final years of his predecessor still vivid, a timely procession of books on the UN has been appearing to offer some fresh appraisals and insights into how things got this way and what, if anything, can be done.
  • Author: Jennifer Rubenstein
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: Between 2002-2005, the UN University and the City University of Hong Kong organized a series of "dialogues" about the ethical challenges facing international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs). The result is this fascinating and timely volume, which addresses not only human rights narrowly construed, but also humanitarian aid and development.
  • Topic: Human Rights
  • Political Geography: Hong Kong
  • Author: Richard Jolly
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: "Economic Justice in an Unfair World" is a stimulating, well-researched book combining economic analysis, political philosophy, and contemporary policy, all focused on one key question: What does one mean by economic justice in a world cut through by inequalities of income, bargaining power, and human poverty?
  • Topic: Economics
  • Author: David A. Welch
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: This passionate book is a powerful conceptual, empirical, and normative critique of Rational Choice theory by a former practitioner. Rational Choice, Taylor argues, is more than a simple style of analysis and approach to problem solving: it is a hegemonic orthodoxy that has subverted psyches, societies, and cultures.
  • Topic: Culture
  • Author: Elbridge Colby
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: Sadly, discussions of the pricklier issues of law, terrorism, and security rarely follow a cool, pragmatic approach. Richard Posner provides just such a perspective on the relationship of the Constitution to the terrorist threat. Undaunted by controversy, he forthrightly addresses detention, harsh interrogation methods, limits of free speech, ethnic profiling, and the boundaries of privacy rights, among other hot-button topics.
  • Topic: Security, Terrorism, Law
  • Author: Andrew F. March
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: "Much of the disagreement and controversy over Ramadan's significance arguably stems not from a disagreement over what he is on record as having asserted or done but from unexamined or unarticulated assumptions about liberal principles and what they demand of Muslims."
  • Topic: Islam, Politics
  • Author: Thomas Diez
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: The possible future EU membership of Turkey has become one of the most hotly debated topics both in the EU and within Turkey itself. Underlying this debate are competing principles of international ethics.
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey
  • Author: Scott Snyder
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: Despite North Korea's antipathy to outside religious influence, it is primarily American NGOs with financial backing from religious organizations that have maintained development and exchange programs with the regime.
  • Political Geography: America, North Korea
  • Author: Tim Hayward
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: Arguing that issues of both emissions and subsistence should be comprehended within a single framework of justice, the proposal here is that this broader framework be developed by reference to the idea of "ecological space."
  • Author: Richard Vernon
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: This article claims that it is not mutual benefit but mutual risk that grounds compatriot preference. Exposure to risks such as state abuse provide us with a reason to take our compatriots' interests seriously. The same argument, however, displays the limits of this reasoning, and also grounds a demanding obligation to aid other societies.
  • Author: Brian Orend
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: These three books show how the enduring principles of just war theory can be applied insightfully and fruitfully to even the latest kinds of conflict, weaponry, and tactics; and they show how just war theory raises significant issues of the background political context, out of which all wars develop.
  • Topic: War
  • Author: Robert Picciotto
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: These two recent works by Roger C. Riddell and Carol Lancaster display a sober understanding of aid challenges, present a balanced view of the context within which aid operations take place, and provide valuable insights about the workings of aid organizations.
  • Topic: Development
  • Author: Simon Stacey
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: This book is an attempt to collect some of the little known about Rule-of-law (ROL) reform, and it does this creditably. Although the book's contributors are rather pessimistic about the theory and practice of ROL reform, they do point to ways to improve its prospects.
  • Author: Jonathan Bach
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: At a time when many international relations scholars are qualifying their premature predictions of the withering of the state, Daniel Drezner's new book makes a compelling case for the continued centrality of the state in the process of globalization.
  • Topic: International Relations
  • Author: Joseph P. Joyce
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Ethics International Affairs Journal
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: Woods is an insightful and thoughtful authority on the Bretton Woods institutions. In this book she examines their activities and focuses on their engagements with Mexico, Russia, and the sub-Saharan African nations.
  • Political Geography: Africa, Russia, Mexico
  • Author: Benjamin Armstrong
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: Center for Contemporary Conflict
  • Abstract: Since the fall of the Soviet Union, China has become a source of increased focus for military strategists and policy-makers throughout the West and most especially in the United States. With the largest army in the world and obvious aspirations to, at the very least, regional power they mark one of the most significant potential threats to American military supremacy. Studies of China's martial past have been included in the professional reading of many officers in the United States Armed forces. However, there is still one common misperception with regard to China's military history. China, despite what many have written, has an important naval heritage. This heritage may not have been central to the study of Chinese history in the past; however it is important for study in the future. The Chinese government itself has included examples from this history as inspiration for their modern policy and strategy. With this fact in mind it is of vital importance that historians and strategists understand China's naval past.
  • Political Geography: United States, China, America, Soviet Union
  • Author: Michael Lynk
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: UN Security Council Resolution 242 endorsed the "inadmissibility of the acquisition of territory by war" and called for "withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied" in the June 1967 war. Since then, a debate has raged over whether these provisions call for a complete Israeli withdrawal, a minor revision of borders, or license for Israel to retain sovereignty over some of the conquered lands. This article argues that the resolution must be read through the lens of international law. A principled legal interpretation clarifies 242's ambiguities on withdrawal and re-establishes the importance of universal rights to a just and durable peace in the Middle East.
  • Topic: Security, Law
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Canada, Israel
  • Author: Omar M. Dajani
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: This essay offers an assessment of the extent to which UNSC Resolution 242's procedural and substantive recommendations have facilitated a negotiated settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict. The historical record of each of the mechanisms of the Middle East peace process demonstrates that the mediation mechanism established in 242 was too feeble for the task assigned to it. The resolution's ambiguities and omissions further diminished its value as a tool of dispute resolution, creating confusion about what acceptance of 242 signified, encouraging hard bargaining by the parties, and denying leaders the political cover for necessary compromise.
  • Topic: Security
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Arabia
  • Author: Richard Falk
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: This essay examines the consequences of the near-canonical status acquired over the years by UN Security Council Resolution 242. After tracing the evolution of the vision of peace seen to flow from 242, the essay explores the various ways in which the resolution has been read. In particular, the interpretation of Israel (backed by the United States) is examined, along with the balance of power factor. The essay concludes by suggesting that clinging to 242 as "canonical" inhibits clear-sighted thinking on new approaches that take cognizance of the greatly altered circumstances.
  • Political Geography: America, Israel, California
  • Author: John Quigley
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Israel takes the position that UN Security Council 242's call for a "just settlement of the refugee problem" does not require the repatriation of the Arabs displaced from Palestine in 1948. However, the background to the drafting of that phrase, reviewed in this article, suggests that this was in fact the intention of the resolution's drafters.
  • Topic: Security
  • Political Geography: Israel, Arabia