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  • Author: Ramazan Erdag
  • Publication Date: 01-2014
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Türkiye'nin dis politikasina iliskin olarak literatürde en çok bilinen iki eser Baskin Oran'in editörlügünü yaptigi Türk Dis Politikasi (Cilt I, II, III) ile Willam Hale'in Turkish Foreign Policy since 1774 baslikli çalismalaridir. Oran ve Hale eserlerinde Türkiye'yi dis politikada geleneksel olarak denge politikasi benimseyen ve uygulayan bir ülke olarak tanimlamaktadir. Ayrica her iki eser uluslararasi sistemde Türkiye'yi orta büyüklükte bir devlet olarak tanimlamakta, bu tanimdan hareketle Türkiye'nin dis politikasindaki sinirlamalari ve imkânlari ortaya koymaktadir. Bu baglamda Ali Balci'nin 2013 yilinda Etkilesim yayinlarindan çikan Türkiye Dis Politikasi: Ilkeler, Aktörler, Uygulamalar adli eseri Oran'in üç cildinin bir sentezi ve Hale'in eserinin ise güncellenmis bir biçimi olarak görülebilir. Öte yandan Balci'nin çalismasinin en göze çarpan yani Türkiye'nin son dönemdeki dis politika tutumunu sistem, aktör ve yapi baglaminda ele almasidir. Yazar dis politika olusumunda iç politikadan bagimsiz, yekpare bir siyaset izlenemeyecegi fikrinden hareketle; Türkiye'nin dis politikasindaki degisim ve kirilmalari iç politikada yasanan iktidar mücadeleleri ve kimlik tartismalari üzerinden okumaktadir.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Chong-Jin OH, Young-Gil CHAE
  • Publication Date: 08-2013
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This study aims to understand the factors and actors of Hallyu (Korean Wave) in Turkey in the context of the characteristic cultural and technological conditions of network society. Two contextual factors -time and space- motivate this particular case study. While the consumption of Korean pop cultural products in European countries has noticeably increased, few studies were conducted on Hallyu in the European continent. Especially, network media technologies including blog, SNS, and various online communication platforms enable the international fans to consume Korean cultural products across the time and spatial barriers. In addition, this case study is also interesting because of the shared historical and cultural heritages maintaining and developing cultural linkages between South Korea and Turkey. Thus, this study contextualizes the Hallyu phenomenon in the context of historical, cultural, and technological relations between the two countries.
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, India, South Korea
  • Author: Nazif Mandaci
  • Publication Date: 04-2012
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Avrupa'daki radikal sağ Balkanlı ortaklarına memnuniyetle kucak acmış gorunmektedir. Her ne kadar farklı coğrafyalarda, farklı etmenlerin etkisinde doğmuşlarsa da Avrupalı radikal sağ ailesi yeni uyelerin katılımıyla sesini daha gur cıkarmaya hazırlanmaktadır. Ote yandan hem Avrupa'da hem de bu bolgede radikal sağ hareketlerin yukselmesi Turkiye'nin Avrupa'ya dair dış politika hedefl eri acısından bazı sorunlar yaratacak gibidir. Bu calışma, bir bakıma tam uyelik muzakerelerini başarıyla sona erdirmesinin ardından, uyeliği artık AB uyesi ulkelerin referandumlarının sonuclarına ve Avrupa Parlamentosunun kararına kalmış bir Turkiye'ye Avrupa'daki radikal sağ hareketlerin ne tur engeller cıkarabileceğine dair bir fi kir vermeyi amaclamaktadır.
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey
  • Author: Volkan Ş. Ediger, Balkan Devlen, Deniz Bingöl Mcdonald
  • Publication Date: 04-2012
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Levant Bolgesi'ndeki ticaret sisteminden başlayarak bolgenin hidrokarbon jeopolitiğine geciş surecine kadar uzanan tarihsel gelişimin uzun erimli (longue duree) bakış acısıyla incelendiği bu calışmada, bolgenin gunumuzdeki durumu, petrol ve doğal gazın arama, uretim ve ihracı konusunda ozellikle 2000'li yıllardan bu yana yaşanan gelişmelerle değerlendirilmiştir. Bolgenin hidrokarbon jeopolitiğindeki catışma ve iş birliğinin sabit ve değişen boyutlarına, uluslararası ilişkilerin guc politikaları ve gucler dengesi gibi kavramları cercevesinde ozel bir yer verilmiştir. Bu calışma sonunda test edilerek doğrulanan iki temel hipotezden bir tanesi, zaman icinde ticaretten enerjiye evrimleşen Levant jeopolitiğinin, kuresel başat guc ve uluslararası devletler sistemindeki guc dengeleri icin onemini uzun tarihi boyunca koruduğudur. Buna bağlı olarak geliştirilen ikinci hipotez de, Levant jeopolitiğinin kontrolunun başat gucun elinde olduğu zamanlarda bolgesel ve kuresel captaki barış ve istikrarın arttığıdır. Guc dengelerindeki kaymalardan oturu Levant'taki jeopolitik kontrol tek bir gucun elinden cıkmaya başladığı zamanlarda catışmalar artmakta, iş birlikleri azalmaktadır. Doğu Akdeniz'in enerji konusunda gunumuzde karşı karşıya kaldığı tehdit ve fırsatların incelenmesinin ardından bolgedeki catışma ve iş birliği olanakları konusunda cıkarımlar yapılarak, bolgesel aktorlerin temel stratejileri değerlendirilmiştir. Levant'ta one cıkan yeni enerji jeopolitiğinin bolgenin onemli bir gucu olan Turkiye icin oluşturacağı tehdit ve fırsatlar tartışılmıştır.
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Senem Aydın Düzgit
  • Publication Date: 05-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: In line with the poststructuralist approach that theorises identity as relationally constructed through discourse, the purpose of this article is to shed light on the different visions of Europe that are constructed in debates on Turkey’s accession to the EU among German politicians. The article focuses on the political party debates on Turkish accession in Germany, a key member state in EU integration and the debate on Turkish membership to the EU, and subjects them to critical discourse analysis. In doing that, it also brings forward the importance of the concept of discourse from a poststructuralist perspective.
  • Topic: International Relations, Political Theory, European Union
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Germany
  • Author: H. Tolga Bölükbasi, Ebru Ertugal, Saime Özçürümez
  • Publication Date: 08-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article argues that the evolution of the Europeanization research program and that of the literature on Turkey has come evolved incongruously. The article identifies the limits of this interaction, investigates the conceptual, theoretical and methodological origins of these limits, and concludes that such incongruence may be overcome by cross-utilization of the conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and research design tools offered by the Europeanization research program more effectively in studying Turkey. Doing so will allow studying the exclusive impact of the EU on the processes of transformation in Turkey by isolating its transformative role from the impact of other domestic dynamics and international factors.
  • Topic: Political Theory
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey
  • Author: BEKEN Saatçioğlu
  • Publication Date: 09-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Credible EU conditionality is theorized as a central mechanism for bringing EU candidates to comply with the political membership criteria. The literature on conditionality's domestic impact does not sufficiently explore the possibility of democratic reforms in the absence of credible conditionality. This paper tests this alternative hypothesis by studying Turkey under the rule of the AKP (2002-2009). It is argued that notwithstanding the falling credibility of the conditional membership perspective for the ruling actors after 2004, Turkish compliance persisted because it promised political benefits to the government. This finding highlights that domestic governments' belief in conditionality is not a necessary condition of compliance with the EU.
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey
  • Author: Gökhan Bacik, Sammas Salur
  • Publication Date: 01-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The article studies the nuclear agenda of Turkey from two grounds: material and non-material. Both bases are discussed at length regarding Turkey's position in international policy at regional position and domestic level. Turkey's changing policy at home and abroad are analyzed over a sensitive issue, the nuclear, to grasp whether it would be annoying a nuclear gone state with negative aspirations or a state successful for combining its nuclear need with its liberal agenda in the region and at home. Methodologically, the issues are discussed over 'the norms model'. In order to anatomize the Turkey's changing role in the region the new institutional approaches of Turkey to neighboring countries are handled. Referring relations with her neighbors the materialistic grounds of the nuclear-rather than an identity matter-are explored especially ad-dressing Turkey's energy hunger and its need of stability in regional setting.
  • Political Geography: Iran, Turkey
  • Author: Ahmet Sözen
  • Publication Date: 01-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This paper focuses on the use of different forms of power by a (leader/patron/hegemonic) state to get the other (non-leader/client) states to cooperate with its policies. Most of the literature on cooperation operates on the level of bargaining power where the policy changes are directly visible. This article aims to show how the bargaining power model is not adequate in capturing the complete picture of the relationship between Turkey (a non-leader/client state) and the United States (leader/patron state) in their cooperation with regard to Iraq during the Gulf Crisis (1990) and the War against Iraq (2003). Hence, I attempt to show that the three levels of power as discussed by Krause is a better and more comprehensive framework for understanding and explaining the power relationship between Turkey and the US.
  • Political Geography: United States, Iraq, Turkey
  • Author: Bülent Köksal, Abdülkadir Civan
  • Publication Date: 01-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Using data for 67 countries for the period 1980-2005, we analyze to what extent do the decisions of having nuclear power and the share of nuclear energy in total energy use depend on economic, political, social and geographic factors. Our econometric model that takes the selectivity problems of the sample into consideration reveals a positive relationship between per capita real income and the probability of selecting to have nuclear power. This relationship, however, weakens as the level of income further increases. We also find that, the probability of opting for nuclear power continuously increases for Turkey starting from 1990s and becomes approximately 45 per cent by 2007. When we use the new GDP series of Turkish Statistical Institute in our estimations, the estimated probability of selection of nuclear energy for Turkey increases to approximately 60 per cent. Finally, we find that if Turkey had a nuclear power generator today, the share of nuclear energy in total energy would be approximately between 14 to 16 percent.
  • Topic: Nuclear Power
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Cafer Çiftçi
  • Publication Date: 08-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The process of 1711-1821 is a different period in terms of governance of Wallachia and Moldavia. In these years, the Ottoman Empire relinquished to appoint local governors for governance of Wallachia and Moldavia and assigned as voivodes the Greek families from the Phanar working in translations of Supreme Court and navy for years. These voivodes selected from aristocratic families residing in Phanar (Fener) district of Istanbul took many important tasks in both governorship in the region they appointed and correspondences with neighbour states in terms of foreign relations of Ottoman Empire and intelligence of confidential activities of them. In this study, Phanariotes are evaluated under light of original historical sources in terms of their positions in Ottoman Empire, their interpreting activities, their appointment to Wallachia and Moldavia as voivode, their intelligence works during period of governorship for Ottoman Empire on political developments and agreements in Europe by means of their intelligencers.
  • Topic: History
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Moldavia
  • Author: Ali Karaosmanoğlu, Behice Özlem Gökakın
  • Publication Date: 10-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Many analysts, in explaining civil-military relations in Turkey often develop their arguments within the framework of a binary and conflict-oriented paradigm. Although the confrontational analyses have long been reflective of certain aspects of the Turkish case their explanatory value is increasingly fading as a result of newly crystallizing trends characterized by an intense cooperation between the democratically elected government and the General Staff. The main defect of the dichotomous and confrontational paradigm is that it overlooks three fundamental epistemological approaches: the rational (strategic) action approach; the international structural-institutional approach, and the cultural approach.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, Military Affairs
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Birgül Demirtaş Coşkun
  • Publication Date: 10-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article seeks to analyze Turkey's policies toward the Kosovo issue since the early 1990's. While Turkey had pursued a rather cautious policy concerning the independence of Kosovo during the Albanian-Serbian conflict, it extended diplomatic recognition only one day after Kosovo declared independence. Turkish recognition took place at a time when countries like Russia and Serbia were objecting to it and a heavy debate was going on regarding whether the Kosovo independence was in line with the international law. The main research question of this study is why Turkey decided to extend its diplomatic recognition on 18 February 2008. The main argument of the paper is that change in Turkish foreign policy toward Kosovo is instrumental and tactical and does not represent a radical transformation. The decision-makers in Turkey continue to follow the line of the Western countries in the first decade of the 21st century as it had been the case during the Cold War and in the 1990's. The article makes it clear that Ankara prepared the necessary background for the recognition of Kosovo in the recent years step by step.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Kosovo
  • Author: Bican Şahin, Mete Yildiz
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the cooperation between the foreign and domestic NGOs that work in the realm of democratization and human rights in Turkey. The theoretical framework is provided by the literature on “transnational advocacy networks”. Archival research and semi-structured in-depth interviews with the representatives of both foreign and national NGOs are employed as the two main methodological approaches. The findings show that these NGOs share resources such as power, information, experience and money in order to overcome limitations in their political and social environments.
  • Topic: Human Rights
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Elif Hatun Kiliçbeylşa
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Gündelik dilde ve akademik kullanımda “Diplomasi” kavramı çok çeşitli tanımlara sahiptir. Neredeyse her Siyaset Bilimi düşünürünün, teorisyenin; her devlet başkanı, her dışişleri bakanının ve hatta her diplomatın kendi farklı tanımı vardır. En genel tanımıyla Diplomasi, en az iki devlet arasında, var olan veya potansiyel sorun olabilecek konularda karşılıklı diyalog ve müzakere yoluyla sorunun çözümüne yönelik her türden çabayı ifade etmektedir. Oysa bu genel tanımda belirtilen diyalog ve müzakerenin her zaman dış politikada tek araç/yöntem olduŞunu söylemek güçtür. Kimi zaman diyalog ve müzakerenin dilini “güç”e dayandırmak gerekir. Böylesi bir durumda Temel şskit'in ifadesiyle, “'zorlayıcı güç' diplomasinin mi yoksa dış politikanın mı aracıdır?” sorusu akla gelmektedir. Devletler diplomatik müzakerelerin çıkmaza girdiŞi durumlarda kuvvet kullanmaya dayalı bir “etki” yönteminden yararlanmayı pek çok açıdan tercih edebilirler.
  • Topic: Diplomacy
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Didem Ekinci
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: While fully engaged in efforts of suppressing the armed violence in the former Yugoslavia at the turn of the century, Ankara could foresee the coming events, repeatedly called for immediate multilateral action, and argued adamantly about who the aggressor and victim were as opposed to the relevant ambiguity in the West. Central to policy formulations at political parties were Turkey's Balkan heritage/identity, stance against aggression, and the significance of Balkan routes for Turkey. Drawing upon detailed empirical data obtained from parliamentary discussions in three frames, this study examines under which circumstances the Turkish 'state', its identity, interests and intersubjectivities we re at work shaping Turkey's foreign policy towards Bosnia. Finally, it is emphasized that Ankara's foreign policy towards the war was competent despite coalition governments composed of different political mainstreams.
  • Political Geography: Bosnia, Herzegovina, Turkey, Serbia
  • Author: Özgehan Şenyuva
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This study examines general trends of Turkish public opinion towards the European Union between 2001 and 2008. It uses the Euro Barometer data of the European Commission. The main research question focuses on overtime stability of the support for Turkey's membership to the EU. In parallel to the support for membership, the main contours of Turkish public perceptions towards EU and European identity are also examined. When the main attitudes towards the EU between 200 and 2008 are analyzed, it appears that the EU is significantly losing its credibility and support among Turkish citizens. The support for Turkish membership is also in decline and going through major fluctuations.
  • Topic: Public Opinion
  • Political Geography: Turkey, European Union
  • Author: Ali Resul Usul
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: It is possible to argue that there exists a push-pull balance in the EU's democratic conditionality that the EU has been applying since the South European states applied for membership and/or association agreement. This article arguee that this push-pull balance in conditionality has created the Dynamics that could transform candidate states; and the best example that demonstrates the succesful impact of the EU conditionality is the relation between the EU's Eastern enlargement, the EU's democratic conditionality and the successful transformation of political regimes in the Central and Eastern Europe. However, this study puts forward that the push-pull balance of conditionality has started to deteriorate because in particular of the enlargement fatigue in the EU. This change might diminish the impact of the EU's political conditionality in the ongoing enlargement process (Turkey, Croatia and othet Western Balkan states).
  • Topic: Democratization
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Eastern Europe, Balkans, Croatia
  • Author: Cemal Karakas
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: With the beginning of negotiations, Turkey has, froom the legal perspective according Article 49 EUV, the right to join the EU, but the EU does not have the obligation to take Turkey in. The European Council's Turkey resolution at its December 2004 Summit foresees a guarantee clause: If accesion of Turkey is not accomplished, yet both sides still have an interest in deeper cooperation and integration, then "it must be ensured that the candidate state concerned is fully anchored in the European structures through the strongest possible bond". The key question is which model would then work best for Turkey: supranational integration (accession) or intergovernmental cooperation (Privileged Partnership, Extenden Associated Membership, European Economic Area Plus). The model of Gradual Integration shows a new, a third way of integration this model proposes a new dynamic method of intergovernmental integration, including decisiom-making rights for Turkey, from which a new sui generis form of membership could result.
  • Topic: Economics
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey
  • Author: Bahar Rumelili
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This study argues that the forms of identity relations that the European Union (EU) establishes with outsider states shapes the Union's ability to postively influence conflicts involving those states. The European identitiy promoted by the EU embodies both inclusive and explosive aspects. While the EU has invoked the inclusive aspects of its identity in relation to the states in Central and Eastern Europe, it has constructed Morocco to be inherently different, and fluctuated between inclusion and exclusion in the case of Turkey. These various identity relations have shaped the EU's impact on Polish-German, Spanish-Moroccan, and Greek-Turkish relations show how an inclusive EU can contribute to the resolution of conflicts on its borders, the cases of Spanish-Moroccan and pre-1999 Greek-Turkish relations demonstrate how an exclusionary EU can end up aggravating the conflicts.
  • Topic: International Relations
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey
  • Author: Kemal Kirisci
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: In this paper, it is argued that Turkey's geographical location, accompanied by the extensive commercial, cultural and social relations that have developed since the end of the Cold War between Turkey and its immediate neighbourhood, provides an opportunity for the EU to consider formulating a more flexible Schengen visa policy that can also be in harmony with efforts to develop the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). Such a policy can also ease the economic and political costs of Turkey's integration into the EU. This need not necessarily lead to compromising security and border control. The advocates of Turkish membership often stress the potential of Turkey in assisting a process of bridge building between Europe and the world beyond Europe. A modified and better calibrated Turkish visa regime and a Schengen visa system that is able to adjust itself to the lessons of the Turkish experience could become a pillar of that bridge building effort and hence of the ENP too.
  • Topic: Cold War
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey
  • Author: Birgül Demirtas-Coskun
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This study analyses the foreign policies of Turkey and Germany toward the Bosnian War, that took place between 1992-1995, in a comparative perspective. Both states had to face an identity crisis in the wake of the phasing out of the bipolar system. Whilst Turkey, all of a sudden, lost its former status within the Western Bloc, Germany could be reunified in a relatively short period of time. The war in Bosnia took place at the very time when an important discussion was continuing about the new position of these aforementioned countries. In view of traditional International Relations theories Turkey, on the one hand, was expected to focus on its internal problems; Germany, on the other hand, was foreseen to pursue an active foreign policy thanks to the new dynamism acquired by reunification. However, what happened in the case of Bosnia was, in fact, the reverse. The main argument of this study is that one of the main factors shaping the foreign policies of Ankara and Berlin toward Bosnia was the ultimate intention to maintain their former state identities in the new era.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, War
  • Political Geography: Bosnia, Turkey, Germany
  • Author: Gökhan Koçer
  • Publication Date: 09-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: In the post Cold War era, a number of crises and armed conflicts threatening the international security have accrued, and most of them are needed to be intervened by international community and international organizations. International peace support operations are realizing not only by UN-led, but also in other international and regional organizations (such as NATO, OSCE etc.) or coalitions of the willing. The number of activities or operations in which Turkey has participated has significantly risen in recent years. In the post Cold War era, Turkey's contribution to international peace support operations has remarkably expanded. In this meaning, Turkey has been actively contributing to several peace support operations with different formations from Kosovo to Afghanistan, from Palestine to East Timor, from Bosnia-Herzegovina to Georgia. The aim of the first section of this paper is to trace Turkey's record in peace support operations that she has participated so far. In the second section, Turkey's contribution and role in peace support operations will be analyzed.
  • Topic: Cold War, United Nations, Peacekeeping
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Turkey, Palestine, Georgia
  • Author: Joseph Soeters, Erhan Tanercan, Kadir Varoglu, Ünsal Sigri
  • Publication Date: 09-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article examines cooperation between the Dutch and the Turkish armed forces during two peacekeeping missions, respectively in Kosovo (KFOR, 1999-2000) and Kabul (ISAF, 2002-2003). It is based on a literature survey and interviews with officers and NCOs of both sides. The article deals with the collaboration between the two armed forces as well as the interaction with the local populations in both areas of operation. Differences in style and modes of operation are analysed, leading to some thoughts for reflection with respect to intercultural military cooperation and peacekeeping in Muslim countries. It is argued that commanders at all levels should be prepared for the intercultural dimension of working with military from other nations, especially if they are deployed in areas that are culturally distant from their own. In addition, it is stressed that the scope of CIMIC-activities may be expanded in order to win the hearts and minds of the local population.
  • Topic: Islam, Peacekeeping
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Kosovo, Dutch
  • Author: Ramazan Gözen
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article analyses the rapprochement process between Turkey and the EU which has been developing since the 1999 Helsinki Summit and especially in the wake of the US invasion of Iraq. As a result of differing perceptions of Turkey and the EU in the post Cold War, the Turkey-EU membership process had faced a deep "structural" crisis. However, after some important changes in the years from 1999-2003, Turkey and the EU rediscovered, and approached eachother in such a way that it is incomperable with the past. The basic character of this rapprochement is the strategic transformation in perceptions.
  • Topic: Cold War
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Europe, Turkey
  • Author: Emel G. Oktay
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This study aims at evaluating the dynamics that paved the way for the inception of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) initiative, which was lauched by Turkey taking advantage of the impact of the changes in the international system generated by the ending of the Cold War period. For the evaluation of the success and perenniality of the BSEC initiative, organizational structure and perceptions of member countries are also studied. In addition to important economic cooperation, initiatives aimed at security cooperation in the Black Sea, are also analysed by taking into account their impact upon the regional and international arena. Finally, the achievements of BSEC since its inception in 1992 are evaluated and some suggestions are provided.
  • Topic: Cold War, Economics
  • Political Geography: Eurasia, Turkey
  • Author: Berrin Koyuncu
  • Publication Date: 03-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This study aims to analyze the impact of globalization processes on the leading Turkish business association in Turkey, the Turkish Industrialists and Businessmen Association, TÜSIAD. It is believed that there is a need to focus on globalization processes within the context of Turkish business life by taking TÜSIAD as a case since the Association has played an important role in linking the Turkish economy to the global market, and acting as a strong internal actor of globalization in Turkish politics and the economy. It is argued that, in the TÜSIAD case, the impact of globalization revealed itself as the transformation of a business association, in terms of its role as a pressure group concerned with the particular interests of businessmen, to a civil society organization concerned with the general interests of the country, with its emphasis on democracy and EU membership.
  • Topic: Globalization
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Haluk Özdemir
  • Publication Date: 03-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article is based upon the assumption that the European Union has a goal of resolving certain problems pertaining to globalization that its members face, and that Turkey views the membership procedure as a solution of such problems. The awakening sub-identities and the erosion of dividing borders are causing nation-states to face a series of problems concerning sovereignty and identity, such as ontological security and identity fragmentation. To solve such problems, the nation-states compromise their single-centered and assimila¬tionist identity management policies in favor of multi-centered identity governance. With identity governance, not only the national governments, but also the local authorities and the European Union have a word on identity issues. Identity governance, despite dwindling sovereign rights, is performed successfully within the European Union, and is recommended to the Turkish government. From Turkey's side, as a solution to the problem of identity fragmentation, the membership process provides a common, unifying and shared goal for groups with different identities.
  • Topic: Globalization, Governance
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Kudret Bülbül
  • Publication Date: 03-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article argues that the modernization process has created standardization in different areas of life, while culture has been relatively and independently preserved during this process. Nevertheless, it is difficult for societies to sustain independent compartments in the cultural area while employing standardized techniques, institutions, and principles in the areas of economics, politics, and technology. This article explores the reflections of members of the Turkish Grand National Assembly (TGNA) on cultural globalization, since the TGNA is the main policy maker in Turkey. Although the perceptions of TGNA members generally differ, according to whether they are members of the AKP (Justice and Development Party) the CHP (Republican People's Party), their approaches do not depart greatly from that expected from general theoretical discussions. The approaches of the members of parliament (MPs) do not pertain to Turkey only.
  • Topic: Globalization, Politics
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Erel Tellal
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: One of the constant fundamental principles of Turkish foreign policy during the republican era has been its “Western orientation”. In spite of this fact Turkey faced an “Eurasian alternative” in the last decade. Turkey, after negligence for 70 years, has tried to develop (to have friendly relations) with Central Asian and southern Caucasian states after they had acquired independence. The attempt of the last ten years can be called as failure of the last ten years. Since the State and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs remained ineffective in the process of determining policy and implementing it, this vacuum was filled by extreme nationalists who are inclined to see themselves as “big brother” and also by religious fundamentalists. Moreover, reasons stemming from the region and international environment played a role in the failure of Turkish policies as well. In the second decade Turkey should determine the related factors and head toward to cooperate with regional countries and Russia in order to become successful in the region.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Central Asia, Eurasia, Turkey, Asia
  • Author: Mitat Çelikpala
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The concept of diaspora, which was incorporated into the literature on politics in the 1960s, has become a significant notion in current international politics. This study aims to present a theoretical assessment of the diaspora concept, followed by the organisation and the evolution of the Caucasian diaspora(s) in Turkey, which include Armenians, Azeris, Georgians and other North Caucasian peoples. It discusses their transformations from emigrants to diaspora, their views regarding each other as well as the changes that took place within these groups after the collapse of the Soviet Union which had a dramatic impact on their relations with their homelands. The second part of this study shifts the emphasis to the recent developments in Abkhazia and Chechnya, and to the activities and increasing influence of the diaspora over Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the political leaders in Turkey.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Development, Migration, Politics
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Chechnya, Armenia, Georgia, Abkhazia
  • Author: Ali Faik Demir
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Following the collapse of the USSR, Turkey acquired a new opportunity concerning its foreign policy: Caucasus. In this whole region and especially in the southern Caucasus composed of three independent states, Armenia occupied the most critical and the most sensitive issue. Turkey, despite the historical negative legacy, tried to establish a different base for its relations with Armenia, succeeding the dissolution of the Soviet Union. According to this, it is possible to observe positive steps undertaken by the two sides under the presidency of Petrosian, but the Nagorno-Karabakh question became the decisive factor of the bilateral relations during this same period. During the presidency of his successor Kocharian, other than Nagorno-Karabakh problem, Diaspora communities gained influence. This led the so-called “genocide” issue to constitute an important subject of the international agenda in bilateral relations as well as in other international platforms. Despite the Kocharian's hawkish rhetoric in the beginning, which caused the deterioration of the bilateral relations, during the second term of his presidency, a certain détente has been observed. Apart from official relations and negotiations, the Turkish-Armenian Peace Commission, founded in 2001 with the intention to establish a positive, peaceful and free of prejudice platform constitutes an important step.
  • Topic: International Relations, Foreign Policy, Genocide
  • Political Geography: Russia, Turkey, Caucasus, Armenia
  • Author: Pinar Akçali
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article aims to analyze the relations between Turkey and Tajikistan in the aftermath of the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The relations between these two countries remained rather limited in the period of 1991-1994 because Tajikistan was not Turkic, faced negative economic conditions, went through a civil war, and had closer ties with Iran and Russia. Between 1995 and 2003, however, these relations improved as Turkey better realized the fact that Tajikistan was both an inseparable part of Central Asian geography and critical for regional stability. Furthermore, in this period, Tajik Civil War ended with an important political reconciliation. It is concluded that although there has been a relative improvement in Turkish-Tajik relations since Tajikistan's independence, it has not yet reached to a satisfactory level.
  • Topic: International Relations, Economics, War
  • Political Geography: Russia, Iran, Central Asia, Turkey, Asia, Tajikistan
  • Author: Kemal Kirisçi
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Turkey is facing massive challenges as a function of its aspiration to join the EU. In November 2000, the EU adopted the Accession Partnership Document, which listed the re-forms that Turkey was expected to adopt to be able to meet the Copenhagen political criteria. In the midst of these challenges, slowly but surely the EU and Turkey are moving closer to-gether. How can one explain the political process that has brought Turkey, after four decades of membership aspirations, to the very gates of EU membership? This essay will argue that the process was primarily driven by a long and bitter process of "negotiation" between advocates and opponents of membership within Turkey, on the one hand, and between a range of Turkish "negotiators or players" and their EU counterparts, on the other.
  • Topic: Politics
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Enver Dersan
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This study focuses upon the political uncertainty, presumably brought about by the process of globalization. After first discussing some concepts and hypotheses which are fundamental to the study, an overview of Turkey's national security policies is provided. In the second part, the question of Turkey's security is taken up within the context of relations between the U.S.A., EU, and NATO. In conclusion, some suggestions related to Turkey's prospective security policies are proposed.
  • Topic: Security, NATO
  • Political Geography: United States, Turkey
  • Author: Alper Kaliber
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The implications of the Cyprus issue in contemporary Turkish domestic and foreign policues are far more complicated than in previous decades. Particularly with the beginning of the new millennium the heavily securitized and successfully bureaucratised Cyprus issue has turned out to be the main "discursive battlefield" of the polarisation among the ruling elites in Turkey. The present article aims at re-examining Turkey's security discourse on Cyprus with particular reference to its implications in the (re)configuration of political balances and power relations between the conservative state elite and the reformist political elite in Turkey. In this respect, it concludes that the security language premised on the constant assertion of such concepts as "national defence and security, national unity and integrity, geo-strategic importance and vital threats" has been operational in inscribing the legitimate boundaries of the political sphere.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Cyprus
  • Author: Mert Bilgin
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: It is almost impossible for Turkey to find a room in Eurasia based on its political meaning. However the more Eurasia is assigned an economic meaning, the more Turkey can benefit from its advantages. The necessity to ameliorate the terms of the energy agreements signed with Eurasian energy exporters and to increase exportations to these countries through strong brands fortified by the concept of TURQUALITY® are the two preconditions of this. By this positioning Turkey will better respond to the forthcoming pressures from; 1- High costs of energy and raw materials imported from Eurasian countries. 2- Full EU membership of East European countries, 3- Eurasian Customs Union, 4- Global price competition especially in the textile sector. Eurasia, which should be considered within this structure, does not indicate an alternative against Europe, but rather offers opportunities along which Turkey has the potency to position itself as a "Eurasian Tiger" if it manages to overcome these pressures.
  • Topic: Economics
  • Political Geography: Europe, Eurasia, Turkey
  • Author: Yelda Demirag
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article aims to analyze relations between Turkey and Georgia in the aftermath of the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The study is divided into three periods: from the 1991 Turkish recognition of Georgian independence to 1996; from 1996 to 2003, during which military and political relations evolved into a strategic partnership; and after 2003, during and after the Velvet Revolution in Georgia. Current economic relations between the two countries and their possible future course are also considered. Finally, the study provides an analysis of improvements in Turkish-Georgian relations since Georgian independence. This paper argues that Turkey should pursue a more active foreign policy toward economic and political stability in Georgia, as it is a key country in Turkey's Eurasian policies.
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Soviet Union, Georgia
  • Author: Serhat Erkmen
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Turkish-Israeli relations, which are important in the Middle East, were excellent in the mid-l990s but suffered from ups and downs between 2000 and 2005. Turkish-Israeli relations, which celebrated their “golden age” after 1996, reached their lowest point in 2003-2004. This can be explained by changes in the balances between countries in the Middle East and by internal factors in the two countries. It can be argued that the “golden age,” which began with the birth and strengthening of a shared threat perception, deteriorated in the absence of the threat perception. This article examines the structural and conjunctional factors in Turkish-Isreali relations and attempts to predict how those factors may affect Turkish-Israeli relations in the near future.
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East, Israel
  • Author: Pınar Bilgin
  • Publication Date: 06-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: "Standard" concepts and theories of International Relations have, over the years, proven "increasingly irrelevant" in accounting for the "realities" of the developing world. The article discusses how Turkey's International Relations literature has responded to this issue by focusing on the example of the literature on "security". It is argued that Turkey is located in the "periphery" of International Relations, which is characterised by a hierarchical structure whereby the "center" develops the concepts and theories to be adopted by the "periphery". This argument is supported by a survey of the two oldest journals of International Relations in Turkey, namely, the Turkish Yearbook of International Relations and Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Dergisi.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Mustafa Aydin, Damla Aras
  • Publication Date: 06-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The political logic (i.e., political perceptions of the ruling elite in a given country and nature of the political relations with other countries) determines economic activity, not the other way around, among the proto-capitalist states of the Middle East. As the political ties has primacy in the region in determining the course of economic relations, even market oriented democratic (or quasi-democratic) countries have to accept the prominence of political-strategic relations when dealing with such states. This paper will examine the interrelated fluctuation of trade and political tensions between Turkey and its immediate Middle Eastern neighbours - Iran, Iraq, and Syria. It will highlight the political determinants of the relationship between these countries; will discuss the role of the US as the independent variable; and will assess the possible effects of the emergence of Justice and Development Party government in Turkey on country's political and economic relations with its Middle Eastern neighbours.
  • Topic: International Relations, Economics, International Political Economy
  • Political Geography: United States, Iraq, Europe, Iran, Turkey, Middle East, Syria
  • Author: Sennur Özdemir
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: A radical crisis in capitalist system has been determined in the first part of the study, in relation with the present chaotic international atmosphere, resulting in a civilisational turn (from the West to the East). The dominant role attributed to the (Islamic) East in this process will be argued in the second section. Lastly, this argument will be discussed around the MÜSİAD in Turkey, as an organisation (with an Islamic reputation) in recently declared 'model country' for the Islamic Middle East. The MÜSİAD has stamped on the agenda of 1990's in many respects with its multi-functional and multilateral positioning determined by the kinds of activities intersecting economic and socio-cultural (indirectly political as well) fields. This organisation is representative in reflecting Turkey's overall transformation in its multidimensionality (from a specific form of state capitalism to a specific form of market capitalism).
  • Topic: Economics, Islam, Religion
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East