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  • Author: Cafer Çiftçi
  • Publication Date: 08-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The process of 1711-1821 is a different period in terms of governance of Wallachia and Moldavia. In these years, the Ottoman Empire relinquished to appoint local governors for governance of Wallachia and Moldavia and assigned as voivodes the Greek families from the Phanar working in translations of Supreme Court and navy for years. These voivodes selected from aristocratic families residing in Phanar (Fener) district of Istanbul took many important tasks in both governorship in the region they appointed and correspondences with neighbour states in terms of foreign relations of Ottoman Empire and intelligence of confidential activities of them. In this study, Phanariotes are evaluated under light of original historical sources in terms of their positions in Ottoman Empire, their interpreting activities, their appointment to Wallachia and Moldavia as voivode, their intelligence works during period of governorship for Ottoman Empire on political developments and agreements in Europe by means of their intelligencers.
  • Topic: History
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Moldavia
  • Author: Ali Karaosmanoğlu, Behice Özlem Gökakın
  • Publication Date: 10-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Many analysts, in explaining civil-military relations in Turkey often develop their arguments within the framework of a binary and conflict-oriented paradigm. Although the confrontational analyses have long been reflective of certain aspects of the Turkish case their explanatory value is increasingly fading as a result of newly crystallizing trends characterized by an intense cooperation between the democratically elected government and the General Staff. The main defect of the dichotomous and confrontational paradigm is that it overlooks three fundamental epistemological approaches: the rational (strategic) action approach; the international structural-institutional approach, and the cultural approach.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, Military Affairs
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Birgül Demirtaş Coşkun
  • Publication Date: 10-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article seeks to analyze Turkey's policies toward the Kosovo issue since the early 1990's. While Turkey had pursued a rather cautious policy concerning the independence of Kosovo during the Albanian-Serbian conflict, it extended diplomatic recognition only one day after Kosovo declared independence. Turkish recognition took place at a time when countries like Russia and Serbia were objecting to it and a heavy debate was going on regarding whether the Kosovo independence was in line with the international law. The main research question of this study is why Turkey decided to extend its diplomatic recognition on 18 February 2008. The main argument of the paper is that change in Turkish foreign policy toward Kosovo is instrumental and tactical and does not represent a radical transformation. The decision-makers in Turkey continue to follow the line of the Western countries in the first decade of the 21st century as it had been the case during the Cold War and in the 1990's. The article makes it clear that Ankara prepared the necessary background for the recognition of Kosovo in the recent years step by step.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Kosovo
  • Author: Bican Şahin, Mete Yildiz
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the cooperation between the foreign and domestic NGOs that work in the realm of democratization and human rights in Turkey. The theoretical framework is provided by the literature on “transnational advocacy networks”. Archival research and semi-structured in-depth interviews with the representatives of both foreign and national NGOs are employed as the two main methodological approaches. The findings show that these NGOs share resources such as power, information, experience and money in order to overcome limitations in their political and social environments.
  • Topic: Human Rights
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Elif Hatun Kiliçbeylşa
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Gündelik dilde ve akademik kullanımda “Diplomasi” kavramı çok çeşitli tanımlara sahiptir. Neredeyse her Siyaset Bilimi düşünürünün, teorisyenin; her devlet başkanı, her dışişleri bakanının ve hatta her diplomatın kendi farklı tanımı vardır. En genel tanımıyla Diplomasi, en az iki devlet arasında, var olan veya potansiyel sorun olabilecek konularda karşılıklı diyalog ve müzakere yoluyla sorunun çözümüne yönelik her türden çabayı ifade etmektedir. Oysa bu genel tanımda belirtilen diyalog ve müzakerenin her zaman dış politikada tek araç/yöntem olduŞunu söylemek güçtür. Kimi zaman diyalog ve müzakerenin dilini “güç”e dayandırmak gerekir. Böylesi bir durumda Temel şskit'in ifadesiyle, “'zorlayıcı güç' diplomasinin mi yoksa dış politikanın mı aracıdır?” sorusu akla gelmektedir. Devletler diplomatik müzakerelerin çıkmaza girdiŞi durumlarda kuvvet kullanmaya dayalı bir “etki” yönteminden yararlanmayı pek çok açıdan tercih edebilirler.
  • Topic: Diplomacy
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Didem Ekinci
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: While fully engaged in efforts of suppressing the armed violence in the former Yugoslavia at the turn of the century, Ankara could foresee the coming events, repeatedly called for immediate multilateral action, and argued adamantly about who the aggressor and victim were as opposed to the relevant ambiguity in the West. Central to policy formulations at political parties were Turkey's Balkan heritage/identity, stance against aggression, and the significance of Balkan routes for Turkey. Drawing upon detailed empirical data obtained from parliamentary discussions in three frames, this study examines under which circumstances the Turkish 'state', its identity, interests and intersubjectivities we re at work shaping Turkey's foreign policy towards Bosnia. Finally, it is emphasized that Ankara's foreign policy towards the war was competent despite coalition governments composed of different political mainstreams.
  • Political Geography: Bosnia, Herzegovina, Turkey, Serbia
  • Author: Özgehan Şenyuva
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This study examines general trends of Turkish public opinion towards the European Union between 2001 and 2008. It uses the Euro Barometer data of the European Commission. The main research question focuses on overtime stability of the support for Turkey's membership to the EU. In parallel to the support for membership, the main contours of Turkish public perceptions towards EU and European identity are also examined. When the main attitudes towards the EU between 200 and 2008 are analyzed, it appears that the EU is significantly losing its credibility and support among Turkish citizens. The support for Turkish membership is also in decline and going through major fluctuations.
  • Topic: Public Opinion
  • Political Geography: Turkey, European Union
  • Author: Ali Resul Usul
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: It is possible to argue that there exists a push-pull balance in the EU's democratic conditionality that the EU has been applying since the South European states applied for membership and/or association agreement. This article arguee that this push-pull balance in conditionality has created the Dynamics that could transform candidate states; and the best example that demonstrates the succesful impact of the EU conditionality is the relation between the EU's Eastern enlargement, the EU's democratic conditionality and the successful transformation of political regimes in the Central and Eastern Europe. However, this study puts forward that the push-pull balance of conditionality has started to deteriorate because in particular of the enlargement fatigue in the EU. This change might diminish the impact of the EU's political conditionality in the ongoing enlargement process (Turkey, Croatia and othet Western Balkan states).
  • Topic: Democratization
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Eastern Europe, Balkans, Croatia
  • Author: Cemal Karakas
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: With the beginning of negotiations, Turkey has, froom the legal perspective according Article 49 EUV, the right to join the EU, but the EU does not have the obligation to take Turkey in. The European Council's Turkey resolution at its December 2004 Summit foresees a guarantee clause: If accesion of Turkey is not accomplished, yet both sides still have an interest in deeper cooperation and integration, then "it must be ensured that the candidate state concerned is fully anchored in the European structures through the strongest possible bond". The key question is which model would then work best for Turkey: supranational integration (accession) or intergovernmental cooperation (Privileged Partnership, Extenden Associated Membership, European Economic Area Plus). The model of Gradual Integration shows a new, a third way of integration this model proposes a new dynamic method of intergovernmental integration, including decisiom-making rights for Turkey, from which a new sui generis form of membership could result.
  • Topic: Economics
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey
  • Author: Bahar Rumelili
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This study argues that the forms of identity relations that the European Union (EU) establishes with outsider states shapes the Union's ability to postively influence conflicts involving those states. The European identitiy promoted by the EU embodies both inclusive and explosive aspects. While the EU has invoked the inclusive aspects of its identity in relation to the states in Central and Eastern Europe, it has constructed Morocco to be inherently different, and fluctuated between inclusion and exclusion in the case of Turkey. These various identity relations have shaped the EU's impact on Polish-German, Spanish-Moroccan, and Greek-Turkish relations show how an inclusive EU can contribute to the resolution of conflicts on its borders, the cases of Spanish-Moroccan and pre-1999 Greek-Turkish relations demonstrate how an exclusionary EU can end up aggravating the conflicts.
  • Topic: International Relations
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey